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Raffles Institution (RI), founded in 1823, is the oldest and widely considered to be one of the most prestigious schools[1] in Singapore for pre-tertiary education. It is an independent school, providing secondary education through a boys-only Year 1-4 section and pre-university education through a coeducational Year 5-6 section. Its current campus is in Bishan.

Since 2007, the school had offered the six-year Integrated Programme, which allows students to bypass the GCE O-Levels, and take the GCE A-Levels instead. Known as the Raffles Programme, it is offered jointly with its sister school, Raffles Girls' School (Secondary), or RGS.

RI was among the first schools to receive the Ministry of Education's School Excellence Award.[2] It is a member of various academic partnerships and alliances, such as the G20 Schools and The Winchester Network. It also co-founded the Global Alliance of Leading-Edge Schools.[3]

RI was awarded the Singapore Quality Award in 2011.[4] RI is notable for having produced 94 President's Scholars, 3 out of 7 Presidents, 2 out of 3 Prime Ministers,[5] including the first elected Prime Minister in Lee Kuan Yew, 4 Speakers of Parliament, 6 out of 20 members of the current Cabinet, 6 Ministers of State and 13 CEOs of government-linked statutory boards and agencies.[6] It is often cited as Singapore's "premier school" and has been recognised as "the top feeder school for the Ivy League universities plus Stanford and MIT, as well as the top feeder school for Oxford University." [7][8][9]

History Edit

File:RafflesInstitution.jpg

FoundationEdit

Raffles Institution was founded by Sir Stamford Raffles as "the Institution" on 5 June 1823. He secured a grant from the British East India Company, drafted the curriculum and set up the structure for the board of trustees that included William Wilberforce. The intention was to provide education for the children of local leaders in the new British colony of Singapore as well as the Company's employees and others who wished to learn the local languages, and to "collect the scattered literature and traditions of the country" and publish and circulate them.[10][11][12] Raffles referred to the plan as his "last public act" whereby the Institution, through its generations of alumni, would serve as "the means of civilising and bettering the conditions of millions".[13] Those involved in the plan for the Institution included Robert Morrison, William Farquhar, and William Marsden, and funds for the building of the institution were also raised through subscription. The original building of Raffles Institution was sited on Bras Basah Road, but the institution was moved a couple of times and it is now located at Bishan.[14]

The first building at Bras Basah was designed by Lieutenant Phillip Jackson, the Garrison Engineer. The foundation stone of the building was laid just three days before Raffles' final departure from Singapore in 1823, but no classes were held while the building was under construction. The project however stalled and the building was left unfinished for some time.[13] Raffles' vision was also not shared by the Resident John Crawfurd, who felt the scale of the project excessive, and that the government should focus its efforts on elementary education instead.[15] In 1935, a group of European merchants raised money for the Raffles Monument Fund to commemorate Raffles' contribution to Singapore, and proposed that it should be used to complete the Institution.[14] George Drumgoole Coleman was then hired to finish and extend the original building by Jackson.[15]

Early yearsEdit

On 1 August 1834 the Singapore Free School opened on the initiative of Reverend F.J. Darrah, and the number of its pupils grew to nearly 80. When the building for the Institute was completed in 1837, the school applied to occupy the building, a proposal the trustees of the Institution accepted.[16] The Singapore Free School moved into the building in December 1837, and became the Institution Free School.[12] It was however established as an elementary school rather than the college that Raffles had initially intended.[14] Originally the school offered classes in Malay, Chinese and English, the Malay classes quickly closed due to low enrolment, and it would eventually become an English-medium school.[12] In May 1839, the first wing extension was completed, and the second at the end of 1841. In 1856, the Singapore Institution Free School was renamed Singapore Institution.[14]

In 1844, the school became Singapore's first institution to enrol girls with 11 pupils accepted.[12] In 1879, the girls wing of the school was established as Raffles Girls' School (Secondary). Girls from RGS join RI at Year 5 for their pre-university education leading to the GCE A-Levels.

In the 1860s, the school was gradually turned into a high school. In 1868 the school was renamed the Raffles Institution.[14] The most significant headmasters of the period were J.B. Bayley and R.W. Hullett, who oversaw the transition and ran the school for a cumulative period of 50 years.[12]

File:Raffles Institution bust.jpg

Modern eraEdit

The school moved in March 1972 to Grange Road. The old building was demolished and replaced by Raffles City Shopping Centre. The Bras Basah campus's library building is featured on the $2 paper and polymer note in Singapore currency.[17]

In 1982 Raffles Junior College (RJC) was established at Paterson Road to take over the school's burgeoning pre-university enrolment. It subsequently moved to Mount Sinai. In 1984, it became one of two schools selected by the MOE to pilot the Gifted Education Programme to cater to intellectually gifted students.[18] In 1990, the school attained independent status and moved to its present campus at Bishan.

In 2004, the new Raffles Programme was offered to Secondary 1 to 3 students. It allows RI students to enter RJC and sit for the GCE A-Levels at 18, without having to sit for the GCE O-Levels, giving them more time to engage in enrichment and co-curricular or passion-driven activities. The curriculum serves to "seek to nurture the best and brightest into men and women of scholarship who will be leaders of distinction, committed to excellence and service in the interest of the community and nation."[19] This subsequently led to the merging of RI's GEP and Special/Express streams to form a single Raffles Programme stream, and the establishment of its in-house academic talent development programme, Raffles Academy, catering to exceptionally gifted students via subject-specific pullout classes from Year 3 onwards, in 2007.

RJC moved to its new Bishan campus adjacent to RI at the start of the 2005 school year, after attaining independent status and becoming the first Pre-University Institution in Singapore to be awarded the School Excellence Award.

In 2009, RI and RJC re-integrated to form a single institution under the name Raffles Institution to facilitate the running of the Raffles Programme and better align processes and curriculum.[20]

RI's alumni body, the Old Rafflesians Association (ORA), includes former Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew, Emeritus Senior Minister Goh Chok Tong, and three former presidents of Singapore: Yusof bin Ishak, Benjamin Henry Sheares, and Wee Kim Wee.[21]

Lee Kuan Yew wrote about his time at RI in the 1930s in The Singapore Story.[22]

The history of Raffles Institution (1823–2003) is documented in the book The Eagle Breeds a Gryphon, by a former headmaster, Eugene Wijeysingha. The latest edition includes events up to 2003.[10]

Culture Edit

Motto Edit

The school motto - Auspicium Melioris Aevi - comes from the coat of arms of its founder,Sir Stamford Raffles. The official translation by the school is 'Hope of a Better Age'.[23] [nb 1]

Mission & Values Edit

The school's mission of nurturing thinkers, leaders and pioneers of character who will serve by leading and lead in serving is further supported by the institution's FIRE Values - Fortitude, Integrity, Respect and Enterprise.[23]

Rafflesian Principle of Honour Edit

In intellectual pursuit, I shall reflect discipline and passion for learning, and in personal conduct, I shall live in integrity and regard individuals, groups and the community with kindness and respect, and in so doing uphold the Rafflesian Principle of Honour.[23]

Houses Edit

The five houses, three of them named after former headmasters, are Bayley, Buckley, Hullett, Moor and Morrison, represented by the colours yellow, green, black, red and blue respectively.

Template:Colorbull J.H. Moor was the first Headmaster of the school whose 4th-great grandson is Justin Trudeau, Prime Minister of Canada[24]
Template:Colorbull R.W. Hullett was Raffles Institution's longest-serving Headmaster.
Template:Colorbull J.B. Bayley was a Headmaster who "raised Raffles Institution to a large and flourishing establishment", as recorded by the Board of Trustees.[25]
Template:Colorbull The Reverend Robert Morrison was the co-founder of Raffles Institution.
Template:Colorbull C.B. Buckley was the Secretary to the Board of Trustees of Raffles Institution.

Year 1 students are sorted into houses by class. In the early years of RI's history, there were ten houses, including a sixth Philips house (purple), later disbanded. House allocations used to be student-based, instead of class-based. Each House is led by a House Captain, a Year 4 student, who carries out his role along with the respective House Committee. The Houses participate in inter-house tournaments and activities, notably including the annual Inter-House Sports Carnival, Dramafeste and the Inter-House Debate tournament, with points earned from each activity contributing to the House Championship which is awarded at the end of the school year.[26]

Institution Anthem Edit

The Institution Anthem was written by E.W.Jesudason, RI's headmaster from 1963 to 1966. It is sung every Monday at both the Y1-4 and Y5-6 assemblies, at the closure of all formal Institution events as well as in celebration of the Institution's triumphs. The lyrics are:

When Stamford Raffles held the torch
That cast Promethean Flame,
We faced the challenge of the day
To give our school a name.

The eagle eye and gryphon strength
They led us to the fore
To reign supreme in ev'ry sphere
The sons of Singapore.

Come heed the call Rafflesians all
And let our hearts be stirring
We'll do our best whate’er the test
And keep our colours flying

Let comradeship and fervent hope
With one voice make us pray
Auspicium Melioris Aevi
With God to guide the way.

Although the anthem refers to Prometheus and God, the school maintains secular principles. The inclusion of Prometheus is due to the literary allusion to passing the torch, signifying the importance of education while 'God' in this context is a historical legacy of the school's British roots. The current recording of the anthem is in the key of G Major.

Prefectorial Board Edit

File:Raffles Institution Prefectorial Board logo.png

The Raffles Institution Prefectorial Board (RIPB) aims to serve as role models of character, committed to inspiring and rallying the school, so as to forge a united Rafflesian community.

In July 2012, the RIPB engaged the school in a comprehensive review of the role of prefects in RI. It was the first in many years for the Board; and after 3 months of dialogues with students, teachers, alumni and the school management, the RIPB comprised 2 key branches, Standards and Spirit, reflecting the core mission of all prefects. The work of these 2 branches is supported by the Development branch.

In 2015, the RIPB had another review of the role of prefects in RI, and after discussions with the school management, the RIPB has come up with a more pertinent board structure that further enables the RIPB to serve the school. As of 2016, the RIPB has 3 main branches, namely Standards, Spirits and Outreach. The RIPB is headed by the Head Prefect and Deputy Head Prefect, together with 3 members of the RIPB Executive Committee. They work closely with the prefects and a team of RIPB teachers to fulfill the mission of the Board.

The selection of prefects is a rigorous process. Prefects are first nominated by students and seconded by teachers and prefects. The RIPB will then shortlist a number of candidates for interview. A selection camp may also be conducted. Subsequently, potential prefects will be voted in by the school population. In addition to helping maintain order in the school, the Board organizes activities ranging from interest groups to formal occasions. In 2005, the Board raised S$40,000 to buy a van for use by the handicapped at a voluntary welfare organisation, as well as co-organising a Guinness-record-breaking attempt with Dr. William Tan, in aid of a cancer foundation.

Class Executive Committee Edit

Every class in Raffles Institution has its own Class Executive Committee (CEC). This consists of three students: a Chairman and two Vice-Chairmen. Often, students vote for classmates to take up these positions, but some Form Teachers may choose to select students themselves.

The CEC Council is made up of representatives from the CEC from each level. These representatives are nominated and voted by all the CEC members in their respective level. It works closely with RIPB to organize events. It also organises inter-class events, such as the inter-class classroom decoration competition and the inter-class soccer tournament.

Orientation programmes Edit

Year 1: Orientation Camp Edit

The new intake of Year 1 students go through a 3-day orientation camp, involving understanding the school's culture and knowing the campus grounds, and various activities to facilitate class bonding, leadership development, etc. Year 4 Peer Support Leaders (PSLs) guide them through this camp and the rest of the orientation period. At the end of the camp, the Year 1s receive their school badges in the Junior Rafflesian Investiture Ceremony (JRIC). [27]

Uniform Edit

The Raffles uniform from year 1-4 is all-white, including a white short-sleeved shirt with the Raffles badge at the top-right corner of the shirt pocket. Lower secondary students (Years 1 and 2) wear white short trousers and white socks. From Year 3 onwards, students may continue in short pants or opt for white long trousers. Shoes are white-based for all students, with the exception of laces, which must be fully white. Year 3 and 4 prefects must wear formal black shoes, except for Physical Education lessons, where they are required to change into appropriate shoes. School ties are worn on assembly day (Monday). Teachers have a formal gown for special occasions. [28]

Discipline Edit

In former Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew's book The Singapore Story,[22] he mentions being caned for chronic lateness in the 1930s by the then headmaster, D.W. McLeod. In 1956, a former RI prefect wrote that, during his time there, "boys were caned on their bottoms for even winking at the girls. We did have very good discipline in our time and the boys became good citizens, lawyers, doctors, etc."[29]

The school continues to maintain strong discipline with a strict set of rules and regulations. Disciplinary measures are based on the Raffles Online Discipline system, introduced in 2011 and adapted from the Year 5 - 6 Section. Prior to the present system, student records were maintained based on a demerit point system, with Reformative Work Order and detention sessions for repeat offenders. These systems are primarily targeted at petty offences. Current school rules include prohibitions on eating and possessing sweetened drinks outside the canteen, physical activity in school uniform (as opposed to PE attire), and changing in class. The discipline framework is administered by the Discipline Master, in collaboration with the RIPB, for Year 1-4 students, and the Assistant Department Head (ADH) for Discipline for Year 5-6 students. For more serious offences, all male students are liable to receive corporal punishment in the form of caning if necessary.[28]

Curriculum Edit

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Raffles Academy Edit

The Raffles Academy (RA), implemented in 2007, is a programme for students with higher capabilities in specific subjects. RA offers a curriculum pitched at a deeper level. During the academic periods, RA students leave their normal classes to join a special pull-out class. Furthermore, compulsory extra classes are held. The subjects available are History, Geography, Mathematics, Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Literature. RA has also offered Music starting in 2010, but stopped offering it a few years later due to the low cohort size.

At Secondary 2, students can apply for RA via a submission of portfolio of achievements, selection tests and interviews, before they are identified for RA. Minimum requirements for application include a minimum GPA of 3.6, and an 85th percentile rank in the cohort for the subject in question. Each student is allowed to take a maximum of two RA subjects, to allow students to focus their time and effort on subjects they are truly passionate about.

The Raffles Academy has also been initiated in the Junior College section in 2009 so that there is a continuation of the curriculum. However, students who wish to continue taking RA for subjects in RI(JC) will have to sit for a separate placement test at the end of Secondary Four.

Raffles Leadership Programme Edit

The Raffles Leadership Programme (RLP) is an initiative of the Leadership Development Department, aimed at preparing Rafflesians to take on positions of leadership in school and in life. All Year 3 pupils go through the programme which includes going through the Leadership Challenge Workshop and taking the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Instrument. It also features a one-term residential component at RI Boarding.[30] The boarding programme started as a trial in 2008 and has now become a full-cohort programme.[31][32]

Under the RLP, Year 3 pupils also get to take part in a nine- or ten-week, nine weeks for those who board during Term 1 (and if school starts on week 1) and ten weeks for those who board during Terms 2 and 3, residential programme in RI Boarding to learn about independent living skills.[33]

Student Leaders (consisting of all CCALs, ACCALs and Prefects) also get additional training which includes the annual Student Leader Camp, or SL Camp. This takes place around Term 3 to prepare the student leaders to take up their responsibilities as leaders of their CCAs. Participants board in the school's boarding complex and take part in several team-bonding and leadership-oriented activities both locally and overseas.Template:Citation needed

Student activities Edit

Co-curricular activities Edit

Raffles Institution offers about a hundred CCAs under the Co-curricular activity (CCA) programme, including sports, uniformed groups, performing arts, and clubs and societies.[34]

CCAs are categorised as either core or merit CCAs. Core CCAs comprise all sports, uniformed groups and performing arts, as well as Raffles Debaters while merit CCAs consist of all other clubs and societies. Every student of the school takes up at least one core CCA. Merit CCAs are optional, but students are encouraged to take up at least one merit CCA to supplement their core CCA. Certain merit CCAs, such as the Infocomm Club, however, may substitute for a core CCA instead.

The school's sports teams and uniformed groups have earned top places in many national inter-school competitions, doing well in Red Cross Youth, Rugby, NCC, Floorball, Boys' Brigade, and cross-country among others.[35][36]

The performing arts groups have also done well in the Singapore Youth Festival, held once every two years,[37] while the clubs and societies have also won awards.[38]

Boarding Edit

File:Boarding Complex of Raffles Institution (Secondary), Singapore - 20070716.jpg

Raffles Institution Boarding is housed in a Boarding Complex consisting of five blocks. These are named after the five Houses; Bayley, Buckley, Hullett, Moor and Morrison. Each block, apart from the new Hullett block, can accommodate 90 pupils. All blocks have their own staff, and the Boarding Complex is overseen by several Boarding Mentors.

History Edit

The foundation stone of the Boarding Complex was laid by Lee Kuan Yew on 25 March 1994. The first batch of boarders moved into the Complex in 1995.

During the upgrading works in 2006, the former Moor block was demolished to make way for a 13-storey twin tower hostel, the Hullett block, completed in July 2007,[39] and the former Hullett block in turn renamed Moor. The three blocks of Buckley, Moor and Bayley houses boys enrolling in Raffles Leadership Programme, whereas Morrison block caters to girls only.

The boarding complex is undergoing renovation and was expected to be completed by the end of 2012. There will also be a new facade that blends in with the contemporary looks of Hullett block with new windows and new exterior coat of paint. The tiles along the common areas like the staircase and corridors will also be changed to new ones. There will also be new lifts installed at every block. The current games rooms in the four blocks will be shifted into the current reception lobby and in its place, the Buckley block will have a new mini-mart, Bayley a new gym cum dance studio (only for RIB boarders), Morrison and Moor will have new offices for ORA/RPA and the Internationalisation Office. All rooms would also be fully air-conditioned too.

Culture Edit

Boarders consist of local Raffles Institution pupils and scholars from other countries (mostly China and ASEAN countries), as well as pupils from other secondary schools and junior colleges. The Raffles Leadership Programme's first two cycles, in 2008 and 2009, which first phase was mandatory for CCA leaders, included a semester long (Term 3-4) residential component. The remaining two phases, open to applicants through their CCAs, each had a one term long boarding component. Since its third cycle in 2010, all three phases have been open to all interested Year 3 students, and had a one term long boarding component.

Boarding traditions include formal dinners that are held twice a year, as well as an orientation programme for newcomers. Other programmes include the annual RIB Night.

Campus Edit

File:Common Driveway by RI and RJC at Bishan Campus.jpg

The Raffles Institution Year 1 - 4 campus consists of six main blocks on 18.65 hectares of land.Template:Citation needed

Yusof Ishak Block (Former Admin Block)Edit

File:Raffles Institution Admin Block.jpg

The main building is the Yusof Ishak Block, comprising offices, staff rooms, lecture theatres, study areas and computer labs, as well the Main Atrium. It houses the Year 1-4 General Office and the Raffles Archives & Museum. Major upgrading works were completed in early 2007.[39]

Science Hub Edit

The Science Hub, opened in 2008, includes facilities for specialised research such as Xploratory-Labs;[40] as well as Chemistry, Physics and Biology labs. It also houses the Discovery Labs, a Laser Animation/Technology Studio, the Materials Science Lab and the Raffles Academy Home Room. It is connected to the Yusof Ishak Block.

Marshall Block (Former Senior Block)Edit

The Marshall Block, named after Singapore's first Chief Minister David Marshall, houses classrooms for Year 1 students, since year 2013. In the past, the block was solely reserved for Year 4 seniors of Raffles, later the Year 2 students.

Humanities Hub Edit

The Humanities Hub comprises history, geography and literature rooms as well as two circular theatres on the ground floor, and an open-air experimental area. It was in use by Term 3 in 2009. It is connected to the Yusof Ishak Block. Template:Citation needed

Sheares BlockEdit

File:Rafflesinstitutionjuniorblock.jpg

The four-storey Sheares Block was built in 1997. It was named after Benjamin Sheares and used to be called the Junior Block. It houses the Year 2 classrooms, computer laboratories, an English Studio used by the Raffles Players, one Chinese language room used by Chinese Cultural Club and a class room used by the Tamil class. It is four storeys high and is designed as a closed building with the classrooms surrounding a central, covered atrium, which is sometimes used for gatherings and activities. In 2012, several seminar rooms were renovated and converted into the Raffles Discovery Studio, which houses recording, video-editing and other related facilities managed by the Education Technology Department. The Raffles Discovery Studio aims to be a model futuristic classroom facility that encompasses smart technology into lesson plans and design, and is in the early stages of development. Template:Citation needed

ARTSpace Edit

Formerly known as the Design Centre, the first floor of the ARTSpace houses the art galleries, classrooms, and art and music studios. The second floor has a Gymnasium, which has a roof 2.5 floors tall, and bathrooms. The third floor of the ARTSpace houses the CCA rooms of RI's Uniformed Groups and Guitar Room. The roof of the ARTSpace houses the school's mini-weather station.Template:Citation needed

S. Rajaratnam Block Edit

File:Raffles Institution Raja block.jpg

The 7-storey Rajaratnam Block was completed in 2006 beside the Sheares Block, nicknamed by students as the "Raja" Block. Year 3 and 4 classes occupy the new block, named in memory of the late Mr S. Rajaratnam. The first floor, called the Rajaratnam Block Foyer, has many tables and is used by students to study and Uniformed Groups for training. The second to seventh floor houses 40 classrooms. There are also vending machines in the foyer that sell sandwiches and drinks. Next to the Rajaratnam Block is the Raffles Green, a grass patch used for activities and sports.

CCA Block Edit

The CCA block houses the canteen, CCA rooms and the Albert Hong Hall (AHH), as well as an auditorium which also serves as a drama theatre and performing arts centre. Two squash courts are below the stage in AHH. There is also a gym on the second floor. The Prefects' Circular Room is on the fourth floor. Template:Citation needed

Hullett Memorial Library Edit

The Hullett Memorial Library (HML) stands between the Sheares Block and ArtSpace. Co-founded by Dr Lim Boon Keng and Sir Song Ong Siang, it was named after Raffles Institution's longest-serving Headmaster, Richmond William Hullett, in 1923. The Library's official founding (even though a library and museum, from which the National Museum originated, had existed for deades prior to 1923) also marked the centenary of the founding of the institution. [41] The Library traces its roots to the founding of the Institution, making it the oldest library in Singapore.[10][42] The origins of Singapore's National Library lie in the HML.[43]

The library possesses around 50,000 books in English, Chinese, Malay and Tamil (plus a few in French, German, and other languages), and around 40 computers with wireless internet access. It employs full-time staff for administrative purposes, and other tasks are performed by the members of the Hullett Memorial Library Club as well as parent volunteers.

Sports facilities Edit

Raffles Institution offers sports facilities, including an Olympic-size swimming pool. The former 400-metre track and field was replaced by a rugby union field and a softball diamond during the school's upgrading works in 2006.

The school's gymnasium underwent renovation in 2010, and was used as a training venue for gymnastics in 2010 Summer Youth Olympics, together with that in the Year 5-6 campus.[44] The school also has two tennis courts, two basketball courts, two squash courts, and two cricket nets.

There is an artificial soccer turf known as the Astroturf. It used to serve as the Parade Square; the artificial turf was installed around 1995. It was used for school assembly in the morning, and later in the day for hockey training and for individual sports and games, until upgrading works in 2006. Since upgrading works in 2006 were completed, morning assemblies are held at a new area called the Raffles Square, which had been a carpark.

Following the re-integration with Raffles Junior College from 2009, more sports facilities are available. Floorball, table tennis, judo and gymnastics are RI sports now able to use the Year 5-6 Campus facilities.[45]

IT facilities Edit

The school has six general-purpose computer labs, one music studio with Prodikeys, and one X-lab, short for Experimental Lab for research in computer studies. Connectivity is supplied to all buildings by the campus LAN, with additional wireless access covering most areas such as the Administrative Block, the Hullett Memorial Library (HML) and the S. Rajaratnam Block. Tablet PCs are supplied by the IT department to facilitate the use of eLearning in a classroom setting.

The first week of the second term of the academic year used to be dedicated to eLearning. During this week, lessons and materials would be disseminated online for students to study at their own pace, and students were not required to attend school. The programme was initiated in 1999 but scrapped in 2006. Since then, e-learning has been integrated into the school calendar. It is often used by teachers during holidays during term time, for instance on Staff Training Days during term time when students are not required to attend lessons; instead, teachers attend courses held in the campus.

Notable alumni Edit

Template:See also

Politics Edit

Civil service and legislative officers Edit

Business Edit

Others Edit

Notes Edit

  1. Template:Cite web
  2. Template:Cite press release
  3. Template:Cite web
  4. Template:Cite press release
  5. http://issuu.com/ripub/docs/school_brochure_2012
  6. http://issuu.com/ripub/docs/2011_school_brochure
  7. http://issuu.com/ripub/docs/2011-institution-report
  8. Template:Cite web
  9. Template:Cite web
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Template:Cite book
  11. Template:Cite book
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 Template:Cite news
  13. 13.0 13.1 Template:Cite book
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 Template:Cite web
  15. 15.0 15.1 Template:Cite book
  16. Template:Cite web
  17. "The Singapore Mint:Note Facts", The Singapore Mint, 2013.
  18. Template:Cite web
  19. Template:Cite web
  20. Template:Cite news
  21. Honorary Members. Old Rafflesians' Association, 2005.
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 "The Singapore Story". Time Asia (Hong Kong). 21 September 1998.
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 Template:Cite web
  24. Template:Cite web
  25. Bayley House page, Raffles Institution.
  26. Template:Cite web
  27. Template:Cite web
  28. 28.0 28.1 Template:Cite web
  29. "A bit of discipline is good for boys". Straits Times (Singapore). 8 October 1956.
  30. Template:Cite web
  31. Template:Cite news
  32. Template:Cite web
  33. Template:Cite web
  34. Template:Cite web
  35. "2005 Sports & Games Achievements", Raffles Institution, 2005-2006.
  36. "2005 Achievements by Uniformed Groups", Raffles Institution, 26 November 2005.
  37. "2005 Achievements by Music, Drama & Aesthetics Groups", Raffles Institution, 2005-2006.
  38. "2005 Academic Competition Achievements", Raffles Institution, 2005-2006.
  39. 39.0 39.1 "Hot News", Raffles Institution, 26 November 2005.
  40. "MSD Singapore", Raffles Institution/ Merck Sharp and Dohme Exploratory Laboratories, 22 April 2000
  41. The History of The Hullett Memorial Library.
  42. " It houses over 50 000 books. From Books to Bytes - The story of the National Library", National Library Board, 2006.
  43. "The Singapore Institution Library", National Library Board, Singapore, 4 November 2002.
  44. Template:Cite web
  45. Template:Cite news

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

Bibliography Edit

Template:Refbegin

  • Wijeysingha, Eugene et al., (1992), One Man's Vision - Raffles Institution in Focus.
  • Wijeysingha, Eugene (1985), The Eagle Breeds a Gryphon. ISBN 981-00-2054-6
  • Raffles Programme. "Raffles Programme - Nurturing the Thinker, Leader and Pioneer", Raffles Family of Schools, 2006, retrieved 7 December 2006.
  • Seet, K. K. (1983). A place for the people (pp. 6–16). Singapore: Times Books International. ISBN 978-9971-65-097-1
  • Wijeysingha, E. (1963). A history of Raffles Institution, 1823-1963. Singapore: University Education Press. Template:OCLC
  • Makepeace, Walter; Brooke, Gilbert E.; Braddell, Roland St. J. (Eds.). (1991) [1921]. One hundred years of Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press. Template:OCLC
  • Ng Sow Chan (1991). She is from the East (她来自东 /Ta lai zi dong). Singapore: Raffles Institution. Template:OCLC

Template:Refend

External links Edit


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