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Jyutping (粵拼, Jyut6ping3, jỳːt̚.pʰēŋ) is a romanisation system for Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is The Linguistic Society of Hong Kong Cantonese Romanisation Scheme. The LSHK promotes the use of this romanisation system.

The name Jyutping (itself the Jyutping romanisation of its Chinese name, 粵拼) is a contraction consisting of the first Chinese characters of the terms Jyut6jyu5 (粵語, meaning "Cantonese speech") and ping3jam1 (拼音 "phonetic alphabet"). Template:RCL

HistoryEdit

The Jyutping system[1] marks a departure from all previous Cantonese romanisation systems (approximately, 12 including Robert Morrison's pioneering work of 1828, and the widely used Standard Romanization, Yale and Sidney Lau systems) by introducing z and c initials and the use of eo and oe in finals, as well as replacing the initial y, used in all previous systems, with j.[2]

Initials Edit

b
Template:IPA
p
Template:IPA
m
Template:IPA
f
Template:IPA
d
Template:IPA
t
Template:IPA
n
Template:IPA
l
Template:IPA
g
Template:IPA
k
Template:IPA
ng
Template:IPA
h
Template:IPA
gw
Template:IPA
kw
Template:IPA
w
Template:IPA
z
Template:IPA
c
Template:IPA
s
Template:IPA
j
Template:IPA

Finals Edit

aa
Template:IPA
aai
Template:IPA
aau
Template:IPA
aam
Template:IPA
aan
Template:IPA
aang
Template:IPA
aap
Template:IPA
aat
Template:IPA
aak
Template:IPA
  ai
Template:IPA
西
au
Template:IPA
am
Template:IPA
an
Template:IPA
ang
Template:IPA
ap
Template:IPA
at
Template:IPA
ak
Template:IPA
e
Template:IPA
ei
Template:IPA
eu
Template:IPA
Template:Ref
em
Template:IPA
Template:Ref
  eng
Template:IPA
ep
Template:IPA
Template:Ref
  ek
Template:IPA
i
Template:IPA
  iu
Template:IPA
im
Template:IPA
in
Template:IPA
ing
Template:IPA
ip
Template:IPA
it
Template:IPA
ik
Template:IPA
o
Template:IPA
oi
Template:IPA
ou
Template:IPA
  on
Template:IPA
ong
Template:IPA
  ot
Template:IPA
ok
Template:IPA
u
Template:IPA
ui
Template:IPA
    un
Template:IPA
ung
Template:IPA
  ut
Template:IPA
uk
Template:IPA
oe
Template:IPA
eoi
Template:IPA
    eon
Template:IPA
oeng
Template:IPA
  eot
Template:IPA
oek
Template:IPA
yu
Template:IPA
      yun
Template:IPA
    yut
Template:IPA
 
      m
Template:IPA
  ng
Template:IPA
     

Tones Edit

There are nine tones in six distinct tone contours in Cantonese. However, as three of the nine are entering tones (入聲, Jyutping: jap6sing1), which only appear in syllables ending with p, t, and k, they do not have separate tone numbers in Jyutping (though they do in Cantonese Pinyin; these are shown in parentheses in the table below).

Tone name jam1ping4
(陰平)
jam1soeng5
(陰上)
jam1heoi3
(陰去)
joeng4ping4
(陽平)
joeng4soeng5
(陽上)
joeng4heoi3
(陽去)
gou1jam1jap6
(高陰入)
dai1jam1jap6
(低陰入)
joeng4jap6
(陽入)
Tone Number 123 456 1 (7)3 (8)6 (9)
The tone name in English high level or high fallingmid risingmid level low fallinglow risinglow level entering high levelentering mid levelentering low level
Contour[3] Template:IPA 55 / Template:IPA 53Template:IPA 35Template:IPA 33 Template:IPA 21 / Template:IPA 11Template:IPA 13Template:IPA 22 Template:IPA 5Template:IPA 3Template:IPA 2
Character Example 分/詩 粉/史 訓/試 焚/時 奮/市 份/是 忽/識 發/錫 佛/食
Example fan1/si1fan2/si2 fan3/si3 fan4/si4 fan5/si5 fan6/si6 fat1/sik1 faat3/sek3 fat6/sik6

Comparison with Yale romanisation Edit

Jyutping and the Yale Romanisation of Cantonese represent Cantonese pronunciations with the same letters in:

  • The initials: b, p, m, f, d, t, n, l, g, k, ng, h, s, gw, kw, w.
  • The vowel: aa (except when used alone), a, e, i, o, u, yu.
  • The nasal stop: m, ng.
  • The coda: i, u, m, n, ng, p, t, k.

But they differ in the following:

  • The vowels eo and oe represent Template:IPA and Template:IPA respectively in Jyutping, whereas the eu represents both vowels in Yale.
  • The initial j represents Template:IPA in Jyutping whereas y is used instead in Yale.
  • The initial z represents Template:IPA in Jyutping whereas j is used instead in Yale.
  • The initial c represents Template:IPA in Jyutping whereas ch is used instead in Yale.
  • In Jyutping, if no consonant precedes the vowel yu, then the initial j is appended before the vowel. In Yale, the corresponding initial y is never appended before yu under any circumstances.
  • Jyutping defines three finals not in Yale: eu Template:IPA, em Template:IPA, and ep Template:IPA. These three finals are used in colloquial Cantonese words, such as deu6 (掉), lem2 (舐), and gep6 (夾).
  • To represent tones, only tone numbers are used in Jyutping whereas Yale traditionally uses tone marks together with the letter h (though tone numbers can be used in Yale as well).

Comparison with Cantonese pinyin Edit

Jyutping and Cantonese Pinyin represent Cantonese pronunciations with the same letters in:

  • The initials: b, p, m, f, d, t, n, l, g, k, ng, h, s, gw, kw, j, w.
  • The vowel: aa, a, e, i, o, u.
  • The nasal stop: m, ng.
  • The coda: i (except for its use in the coda Template:IPA in Jyutping; see below), u, m, n, ng, p, t, k.

But they have some differences:

  • The vowel oe represents both Template:IPA and Template:IPA in Cantonese Pinyin whereas eo and oe represent Template:IPA and Template:IPA respectively in Jyutping.
  • The vowel y represents Template:IPA in Cantonese Pinyin whereas both yu (used in the nucleus) and i (used in the coda of the final -eoi) are used in Jyutping.
  • The initial dz represents Template:IPA in Cantonese Pinyin whereas z is used instead in Jyutping.
  • The initial ts represents Template:IPA in Cantonese Pinyin whereas c is used instead in Jyutping.
  • To represent tones, the numbers 1 to 9 are usually used in Cantonese Pinyin, although the use of 1, 3, 6 to replace 7, 8, 9 for the checked tones is acceptable. However, only the numbers 1 to 6 are used in Jyutping.

Examples Edit

Traditional Simplified Romanization
廣州話 广州话 Gwong2zau1waa2
粵語 粤语 Jyut6jyu5
你好 你好 nei5 hou2

Sample transcription of one of the 300 Tang Poems:

Template:Lang
Template:Lang
Ceon1 hiu2
Maang6 Hou6jin4
Template:Lang Ceon1 min4 bat1 gok3 hiu2,
Template:Lang cyu3 cyu3 man4 tai4 niu5.
Template:Lang Je6 loi4 fung1 jyu5 sing1,
Template:Lang faa1 lok6 zi1 do1 siu2?

Jyutping input methodEdit

The Jyutping method (Template:Zh) refers to a family of input methods based on the Jyutping romanization system.

The Jyutping method allows a user to input Chinese characters by entering the jyutping of a Chinese character (with or without tone, depending on the system) and then presenting the user with a list of possible characters with that pronunciation.

List of Jyutping keyboard input utilitiesEdit

See alsoEdit

Template:Portal

FootnotesEdit

  1. Template:Cite web
  2. Template:Cite journal
  3. MATTHEWS, S.; YIP, V. Cantonese: A Comprehensive Grammar; London: Routledge, 1994

External links Edit

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