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Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States of America, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.[1] Hawaii is the only U.S. state located in Oceania and the only one composed entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean.[2] Hawaii is the only U.S. state located outside North America.

The state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over Template:Convert. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast: [[Niihau|NiTemplate:Okinaihau]], [[Kauai|KauaTemplate:Okinai]], [[Oahu|OTemplate:Okinaahu]], [[Molokai|MolokaTemplate:Okinai]], [[Lanai|LānaTemplate:Okinai]], [[Kahoolawe|KahoTemplate:Okinaolawe]], Maui, and the [[Hawaii (island)|Island of HawaiTemplate:Okinai]]. The last is the largest island in the group; it is often called the "Big Island" or "HawaiTemplate:Okinai Island" to avoid confusion with the state or archipelago. The archipelago is physiographically and ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania.

Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, and active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers, biologists, and volcanologists. Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is strongly influenced by North American and Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U.S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of OTemplate:Okinaahu.

Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the fifty U.S. states. It is the only state with an Asian plurality. The state's coastline is about Template:Convert long, the fourth longest in the U.S. after the coastlines of Alaska, Florida, and California.

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EtymologyEdit

The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of its largest island, [[Hawaii (island)|HawaiTemplate:Okinai]]. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of HawaiTemplate:Okinai is that was named for [[Hawaiiloa|HawaiTemplate:Okinailoa]], a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth. He is said to have discovered the islands when they were first settled.[3][4]

The Hawaiian language word HawaiTemplate:Okinai is very similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland".[5] Cognates of HawaiTemplate:Okinai are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori (Hawaiki), Rarotongan (ʻAvaiki) and Samoan ([[Savai'i|SavaiTemplate:Okinai]]) . According to linguists Pukui and Elbert,[6] "[e]lsewhere in Polynesia, HawaiTemplate:Okinai or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaii, the name has no meaning".[7]

Spelling of state nameEdit

A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language.[8] The title of the state constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. ArticleTemplate:NbspXV, SectionTemplate:Nbsp1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii.[9] Diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949,[10] predates the use of the okina (Template:Okina) and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography. The exact spelling of the state's name in the Hawaiian language is HawaiTemplate:Okinai.Template:Efn In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications, department and office titles, and the Seal of Hawaii use the traditional spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length.[11] In contrast, the National and State Parks Services, the University of HawaiTemplate:Okinai and some private enterprises implement these symbols. No precedent for changes to U.S. state names exists since the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1789. However, the Constitution of Massachusetts formally changed the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1780, and in 1819 the Territory of Arkansaw was created but was later admitted to statehood as State of Arkansas.

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Template:AnchorGeography and environmentEdit

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File:ISS-38 Hawaiian Island chain.jpg

There are eight main Hawaiian islands, seven of which are permanently inhabited. The island of NiTemplate:Okinaihau is privately managed by brothers Bruce and Keith Robinson; access is restricted to those who have permission from the island's owners.

File:Na Pali Coast, Kauai, Hawaii.jpg
File:Hawaii State Map.jpg

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TopographyEdit

File:Hawaii in Pacific Ocean.png

The Hawaiian archipelago is located Template:Convert southwest of the contiguous United States.[13] Hawaii is the southernmost U.S. state and the second westernmost after Alaska. Hawaii, along with Alaska, does not border any other U.S. state. It is the only U.S. state that is not geographically located in North America, the only state completely surrounded by water and that is entirely an archipelago, and the only state in which coffee is commercially cultivable.

In addition to the eight main islands, the state has many smaller islands and islets. [[Kaʻula|KaTemplate:Okinaula]] is a small island near NiTemplate:Okinaihau. The Northwest Hawaiian Islands is a group of nine small, older islands to the northwest of KauaTemplate:Okinai that extend from Nihoa to Kure Atoll; these are remnants of once much larger volcanic mountains. Across the archipelago are around 130 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, which are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin.[14]

Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea is Template:Convert above mean sea level;[15] it is taller than Mount Everest if measured from the base of the mountain, which lies on the floor of the Pacific Ocean and rises about Template:Convert.[16]

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GeologyEdit

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File:Pāhoehoe lava meets Pacific.jpg

The Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanic activity initiated at an undersea magma source called the Hawaii hotspot. The process is continuing to build islands; the tectonic plate beneath much of the Pacific Ocean continually moves northwest and the hot spot remains stationary, slowly creating new volcanoes. Because of the hotspot's location, all currently active land volcanoes are located on the southern half of Hawaii Island. The newest volcano, [[Loihi Seamount|LōTemplate:Okinaihi Seamount]], is located south of the coast of Hawaii Island.

The last volcanic eruption outside Hawaii Island occurred at Haleakalā on Maui before the late 18thTemplate:Nbspcentury, possibly hundreds of years earlier.[17] In 1790, Kīlauea exploded; it was the deadliest eruption known to have occurred in the modern era in what is now the United States.[18] Up to 5,405 warriors and their families marching on Kīlauea were killed by the eruption.[19] Volcanic activity and subsequent erosion have created impressive geological features. Hawaii Island has the third-highest point among the world's islands.[20]

On the flanks of the volcanoes, slope instability has generated damaging earthquakes and related tsunamis, particularly in 1868 and 1975.[21] Steep cliffs have been created by catastrophic debris avalanches on the submerged flanks of ocean island volcanoes.[22][23]

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Flora and faunaEdit

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File:Corvus hawaiiensis.jpg

Because the islands of Hawaii are distant from other land habitats, life is thought to have arrived there by wind, waves (i.e. by ocean currents) and wings (i.e. birds, insects, and any seeds they may have carried on their feathers). This isolation, in combination with the diverse environment (including extreme altitudes, tropical climates, and arid shorelines), produced an array of endemic flora and fauna. Hawaii has more endangered species and has lost a higher percentage of its endemic species than any other U.S. state.[24] One endemic plant, Brighamia, now requires hand-pollination because its natural pollinator is presumed to be extinct.[25] The two species of BrighamiaB. rockii and B. insignis—are represented in the wild by around 120 individual plants. To ensure these plants set seed, biologists rappel down Template:Convert cliffs to brush pollen onto their stigmas.[26]

The extant main islands of the archipelago have been above the surface of the ocean for fewer than 10Template:Nbspmillion years; a fraction of the time biological colonization and evolution have occurred there. The islands are well known for the environmental diversity that occurs on high mountains within a trade winds field. On a single island, the climate around the coasts can range from dry tropical (less than Template:Convert annual rainfall) to wet tropical; on the slopes, environments range from tropical rainforest (more than Template:Convert per year), through a temperate climate, to alpine conditions with a cold, dry climate. The rainy climate impacts soil development, which largely determines ground permeability, affecting the distribution of streams and wetlands.Template:Citation needed

Protected areasEdit

File:Hawaiian monk seal at French Frigate Shoals 07.jpg

Several areas in Hawaii are under the protection of the National Park Service.[27] Hawaii has two national parks: Haleakalā National Park located near Kula on the island of Maui, which features the dormant volcano Haleakalā that formed east Maui, and Hawaii Volcanoes National Park in the southeast region of the HawaiTemplate:Okinai Island, which includes the active volcano Kīlauea and its rift zones.

There are three national historical parks; Kalaupapa National Historical Park in Kalaupapa, MolokaTemplate:Okinai, the site of a former leper colony; Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park in Kailua-Kona on HawaiTemplate:Okinai Island; and [[Puʻuhonua o Hōnaunau National Historical Park|PuTemplate:Okinauhonua o Hōnaunau National Historical Park]], an ancient place of refuge on HawaiTemplate:Okinai Island's west coast. Other areas under the control of the National Park Service include Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail on HawaiTemplate:Okinai Island and the USS Arizona Memorial at Pearl Harbor on OTemplate:Okinaahu.

The Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument was proclaimed by President George W. Bush on June 15, 2006. The monument covers roughly Template:Convert of reefs, atolls, and shallow and deep sea out to Template:Convert offshore in the Pacific Ocean—an area larger than all of the national parks in the U.S. combined.[28]

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ClimateEdit

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File:Hawaje-NoRedLine.jpg

Hawaii's climate is typical for the tropics, although temperatures and humidity tend to be less extreme because of near-constant trade winds from the east. Summer highs usually reach around Template:Convert during the day, with the temperature reaching a low of Template:Convert at night. Winter day temperatures are usually around Template:Convert; at low elevation they seldom dip below Template:Convert at night. Snow, not usually associated with the tropics, falls at Template:Convert on Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa on Hawaii Island in some winter months. Snow rarely falls on Haleakalā. [[Mount Waialeale|Mount WaiTemplate:OkinaaleTemplate:Okinaale]] on KauaTemplate:Okinai has the second-highest average annual rainfall on Earth, about Template:Convert per year. Most of Hawaii experiences only two seasons; the dry season runs from May to October and the wet season is from October to April.[30]

The warmest temperature recorded in the state, in Pahala on April 27, 1931, is Template:Convert, making it tied with Alaska as the lowest record high temperature observed in a U.S. state.[31] Hawaii's record low temperature is Template:Convert observed in MayTemplate:Nbsp1979 on the summit of Mauna Kea. Hawaii is the only state to have never recorded sub-zero Fahrenheit temperatures.[31]

Climates vary considerably on each island; they can be divided into windward and leeward (koTemplate:Okinaolau and kona, respectively) areas based upon location relative to the higher mountains. Windward sides face cloud cover.Template:Cn

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HistoryEdit

Template:Main article Template:HI history Hawaii is one of four U.S. states—apart from the original thirteen, along with the Vermont Republic (1791), the Republic of Texas (1845), and the California Republic (1846)—that were independent nations prior to statehood. Along with Texas, Hawaii had formal, international diplomatic recognition as a nation.[32]

The [[Kingdom of Hawaii|Kingdom of HawaiTemplate:Okinai]] was sovereign from 1810 until 1893 when the monarchy was overthrown by resident American and European capitalists and landholders. Hawaii was an independent republic from 1894 until August 12, 1898, when it officially became a territory of the United States. Hawaii was admitted as a U.S. state on August 21, 1959.[33]

First human settlement – Ancient HawaiTemplate:Okinai (800–1778)Edit

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Based on archaeological evidence, the earliest habitation of the Hawaiian Islands dates to around 300 CE, probably by Polynesian settlers from the Marquesas Islands. A second wave of migration from Raiatea and Bora Bora took place in the Template:Ordinal century. The date of the human discovery and habitation of the Hawaiian Islands is the subject of academic debate.[34] Some archaeologists and historians think it was a later wave of immigrants from Tahiti around 1000 CE who introduced a new line of high chiefs, the kapu system, the practice of human sacrifice, and the building of heiau.Template:Citation needed This later immigration is detailed in Hawaiian mythology (moTemplate:Okinaolelo) about [[Pa'ao|PaTemplate:Okinaao]]. Other authors say there is no archaeological or linguistic evidence for a later influx of Tahitian settlers and that PaTemplate:Okinaao must be regarded as a myth.Template:Citation needed

The history of the islands is marked by a slow, steady growth in population and the size of the chiefdoms, which grew to encompass whole islands. Local chiefs, called [[Ali'i|aliTemplate:Okinai]], ruled their settlements, and launched wars to extend their influence and defend their communities from predatory rivals. Ancient Hawaii was a caste-based society, much like that of Hindus in India.[35]

European arrivalEdit

File:Tereoboo, King of Owyhee, bringing presents to Captain Cook by John Webber.jpg

It is possible that Spanish explorers arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in the 16th century—200 years before Captain James Cook's first documented visit in 1778. Ruy López de Villalobos commanded a fleet of six ships that left Acapulco in 1542 bound for the Philippines with a Spanish sailor named Juan Gaetano aboard as pilot. Depending on the interpretation, Gaetano's reports describe an encounter with either HawaiTemplate:Okinai or the Marshall Islands.[36][37]Template:Better source If de Villalobos' crew spotted HawaiTemplate:Okinai, Gaetano would be considered the first European to see the islands. Some scholars have dismissed these claims due to a lack of credibility.[38][39]

Spanish archives contain a chart that depicts islands at the same latitude as HawaiTemplate:Okinai but with a longitude ten degrees east of the islands. In this manuscript, the island of Maui is named La Desgraciada (The Unfortunate Island), and what appears to be HawaiTemplate:Okinai Island is named La Mesa (The Table). Islands resembling Kahoolawe, Lanai, and Molokai are named Los Monjes (The Monks).[40] For two-and-a-half centuries, Spanish galleons crossed the Pacific from Mexico along a route that passed south of HawaiTemplate:Okinai on their way to Manila. The exact route was kept secret to protect the Spanish trade monopoly against competing powers.

The 1778 arrival of British explorer James Cook was the first documented contact by a European explorer with Hawaii. Cook named the archipelago as the Sandwich Islands in honor of his sponsor John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. Cook published the islands' location and rendered the native name as Owyhee. This spelling lives on in Owyhee County, Idaho. It was named after three native Hawaiian members of a trapping party who went missing in that area. The Owyhee Mountains were also named for them.[41]

File:Entrevue de l'expedition de M. Kotzebue avec le roi Tammeamea dans l'ile d'Ovayhi, Iles Sandwich (detailed).jpg

Cook visited the Hawaiian Islands twice. As he prepared for departure after his second visit in 1779, a quarrel ensued as Cook took temple idols and fencing as "firewood",[42] and a minor chief and his men took a ship's boat. Cook abducted the [[Alii Aimoku of Hawaii|King of HawaiTemplate:Okinai Island]], [[Kalaniʻōpuʻu|KalaniTemplate:OkinaōpuTemplate:Okinau]], and held him for ransom aboard his ship in order to gain return of Cook's boat. This tactic had worked in Tahiti and other islands.[43] Instead, KalaniTemplate:OkinaōpuTemplate:Okinau's supporters fought back, killing Cook and four marines as Cook's party retreated along the beach to their ship. They departed without the ship's boat.

After Cook's visit and the publication of several books relating his voyages, the Hawaiian islands attracted many European visitors: explorers, traders, and eventually whalers, who found the islands to be a convenient harbor and source of supplies. Early British influence can be seen in the design of the [[Flag of Hawaii|flag of HawaiTemplate:Okinai]], which bears the Union Jack in the top-left corner. These visitors introduced diseases to the once-isolated islands, causing the Hawaiian population to drop precipitously.[44] Native Hawaiians had no resistance to Eurasian diseases, such as influenza, smallpox and measles. By 1820, disease, famine and wars between the chiefs killed more than half of the Native Hawaiian population.[45] During the 1850s, measles killed a fifth of Hawaii's people.[46]

Historical records indicated the earliest Chinese immigrants to Hawaii originated from Guangdong Province; a few sailors arrived in 1778 with Captain Cook's journey and more arrived in 1789 with an American trader, who settled in Hawaii in the late 18th century. It appears that leprosy was introduced by Chinese workers by 1830; as with the other new infectious diseases, it proved damaging to the Hawaiians.Template:Citation needed

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Kingdom of HawaiTemplate:OkinaiEdit

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House of KamehamehaEdit

File:Kamehameha I.png

During the 1780s and 1790s, chiefs often fought for power. After a series of battles that ended in 1795, all inhabited islands were subjugated under a single ruler, who became known as King Kamehameha the Great. He established the House of Kamehameha, a dynasty that ruled the kingdom until 1872.[47]

After Kamehameha II inherited the throne in 1819, American Protestant missionaries to Hawaii converted many Hawaiians to Christianity. They used their influence to end many traditional practices of the people.[48][49] During the reign of King Kamehameha III, Hawai'i turned into a Christian monarchy with the signing of the 1840 Constitution.[50] Hiram Bingham I, a prominent Protestant missionary, was a trusted adviser to the monarchy during this period. Other missionaries and their descendants became active in commercial and political affairs, leading to conflicts between the monarchy and its restive American subjects.[51] Catholic and Mormon missionaries were also active in the kingdom, but they converted a minority of the Native Hawaiian population.[52][53][54] Missionaries from each major group administered to the leper colony at Kalaupapa on MolokaTemplate:Okinai, which was established in 1866 and operated well into the 20th century. The best known were Father Damien and Mother Marianne Cope, both of whom were canonized in the early 21st century as Roman Catholic saints.

The death of the bachelor King Kamehameha V—who did not name an heir—resulted in the popular election of Lunalilo over Kalākaua. Lunalilo died the next year, also without naming an heir. In 1874, the election was contested within the legislature between Kalākaua and Emma, Queen Consort of Kamehameha IV. After riots broke out, the United States and Britain landed troops on the islands to restore order. King Kalākaua was chosen as monarch by the Legislative Assembly by a vote of 39 to 6 on February 12, 1874.[55]

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1887 Constitution and overthrow preparationsEdit

In 1887, Kalākaua was forced to sign the 1887 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii. Drafted by white businessmen and lawyers, the document stripped the king of much of his authority. It established a property qualification for voting that effectively disenfranchised most Hawaiians and immigrant laborers and favored the wealthier, white elite. Resident whites were allowed to vote but resident Asians were not. Because the 1887 Constitution was signed under threat of violence, it is known as the Bayonet Constitution. King Kalākaua, reduced to a figurehead, reigned until his death in 1891. His sister, Queen [[Liliuokalani|LiliTemplate:Okinauokalani]], succeeded him; she was the last monarch of HawaiTemplate:Okinai.[56]

In 1893, Queen LiliTemplate:Okinauokalani announced plans for a new constitution. On January 14, 1893, a group of mostly Euro-American business leaders and residents formed the Committee of Safety to stage a coup d'état against the kingdom and seek annexation by the United States. United States Government Minister John L. Stevens, responding to a request from the Committee of Safety, summoned a company of U.S. Marines. According to historian William Russ, these troops effectively rendered the monarchy unable to protect itself.[57]

Overthrow of 1893 – the Republic of Hawaii (1894–1898)Edit

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[[File:Liliuokalani in 1891.jpg|thumb|left|[[Liliuokalani|Queen LiliTemplate:Okinauokalani]], the last reigning monarch of the Hawaiian Kingdom.|alt=Queen LiliTemplate:Okinauokalani, seated inside Template:OkinaIolani Palace.]]

[[File:NORTHEAST FACADE - Iolani Palace, King and Richards Streets, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI HABS HI,2-HONLU,8-7.tif|thumb|The [[Iolani Palace|Template:OkinaIolani Palace]] in Honolulu, formerly the residence of the Hawaiian monarch, was the capitol of the Republic of Hawaii.]]

In January 1893, Queen LiliTemplate:Okinauokalani was overthrown and replaced by a provisional government composed of members of the American Committee of Safety. American lawyer Sanford B. Dole became President of the Republic when the Provisional Government of Hawaii ended on July 4, 1894. Controversy ensued in the following years as the Queen tried to regain her throne. The administration of President Grover Cleveland commissioned the Blount Report, which concluded that the removal of LiliTemplate:Okinauokalani had been illegal. The U.S. government first demanded that Queen LiliTemplate:Okinauokalani be reinstated, but the Provisional Government refused.

Congress conducted an independent investigation, and on February 26, 1894, submitted the Morgan Report, which found all parties, including Minister Stevens—with the exception of the Queen—"not guilty" and not responsible for the coup.[58] Partisans on both sides of the debate questioned the accuracy and impartiality of both the Blount and Morgan reports over the events of 1893.[57][59][60][61]

In 1993, the US Congress passed a joint Apology Resolution regarding the overthrow; it was signed by President Bill Clinton. The resolution apologized for the overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom and acknowledged that the United States had annexed Hawaii unlawfully.[61]

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Template:AnchorAnnexation – the Territory of Hawaii (1898–1959)Edit

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File:USS SHAW exploding Pearl Harbor Nara 80-G-16871 2.jpg

After William McKinley won the 1896 U.S. presidential election, advocates pressed to annex the Republic of Hawaii. The previous president, Grover Cleveland, was a friend of Queen LiliTemplate:Okinauokalani. McKinley was open to persuasion by U.S. expansionists and by annexationists from HawaiTemplate:Okinai. He met with three annexationists: Lorrin A. Thurston, Francis March Hatch and William Ansel Kinney. After negotiations in June 1897, Secretary of State John Sherman agreed to a treaty of annexation with these representatives of the Republic of Hawaii.[62] The U.S. Senate never ratified the treaty. Despite the opposition of most native Hawaiians,[63] the Newlands Resolution was used to annex the Republic to the U.S.; it became the Territory of Hawaii. The Newlands Resolution was passed by the House on June 15, 1898, by 209 votes in favor to 91 against, and by the Senate on July 6, 1898, by a vote of 42 to 21.[64][65][66]

In 1900, Hawaii was granted self-governance and retained [[Iolani Palace|Template:OkinaIolani Palace]] as the territorial capitol building. Despite several attempts to become a state, Hawaii remained a territory for sixty years. Plantation owners and capitalists, who maintained control through financial institutions such as the Big Five, found territorial status convenient because they remained able to import cheap, foreign labor. Such immigration and labor practices were prohibited in many states.[67][68]

Puerto Rican immigration to Hawaii began in 1899 when Puerto Rico's sugar industry was devastated by two hurricanes, causing a worldwide shortage of sugar and a huge demand for sugar from Hawaii. Hawaiian sugarcane plantation owners began to recruit experienced, unemployed laborers in Puerto Rico. Two waves of Korean immigration to Hawaii occurred in the 20th century. The first wave arrived between 1903 and 1924; the second wave began in 1965 after President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 which removed racial and national barriers and resulted in significantly altering the demographic mix in the U.S.[69]

OTemplate:Okinaahu was the target of a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor by Imperial Japan on December 7, 1941. The attack on Pearl Harbor and other military and naval installations, carried out by aircraft and by midget submarines, brought the United States into World War II.

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Political changes of 1954 – the State of Hawaii (1959–present)Edit

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File:Food-Hawaii-Canning. Native girls packing pineapple into cans. - NARA - 522863.tif

In the 1950s, the power of the plantation owners was broken by the descendants of immigrant laborers, who were born in Hawaii and were U.S. citizens. They voted against the Hawaii Republican Party, strongly supported by plantation owners. The new majority voted for the Democratic Party of Hawaii, which dominated territorial and state politics for more than 40 years. Eager to gain full representation in Congress and the Electoral College, residents actively campaigned for statehood. In Washington there was talk that Hawaii would be a Republican Party stronghold so it was matched with the admission of Alaska, seen as a Democratic Party stronghold. These predictions turned out to be inaccurate; today, Hawaii votes Democratic predominately, and Alaska votes Republican.[70][71][72][73]

In March 1959, Congress passed the Hawaii Admission Act, which U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed into law.[74] The act excluded Palmyra Atoll from statehood; it had been part of the Kingdom and Territory of Hawaii. On June 27, 1959, a referendum asked residents of Hawaii to vote on the statehood bill; 94.3% voted in favor of statehood and 5.7% opposed it.[75] The referendum asked voters to choose between accepting the Act and remaining a U.S. territory. The United Nations' Special Committee on Decolonization later removed Hawaii from its list of non-self-governing territories.

After attaining statehood, Hawaii quickly modernized through construction and a rapidly growing tourism economy. Later, state programs promoted Hawaiian culture.Template:Which The Hawaii State Constitutional Convention of 1978 created institutions such as the Office of Hawaiian Affairs to promote indigenous language and culture.Template:Citation needed

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DemographicsEdit

PopulationEdit

File:Hawaii population map.png

Template:See also After Europeans and mainland Americans first arrived during the Kingdom of Hawaii period, the overall population of Hawaii, until that time composed soley of indigenous Hawaiians, fell dramatically. The indigenous Hawaiian population succumbed to foreign diseases, declining from 300,000 in the 1770s, to 60,000 in the 1850s, to 24,000 in 1920. The population of Hawaii began to finally increase after an influx of primarily Asian settlers that arrived as migrant laborers at the end of the 19thTemplate:Nbspcentury.[76]

The unmixed indigenous Hawaiian population has still not restored itself to its 300,000 pre-contact level. As of 2010, only 156,000 persons declared themselves to be of Native Hawaiian only ancestry, just over half of the pre-contact level Native Hawaiian population, although an additional 371,000 persons declared themselves to possess Native Hawaiian ancestry in combination with one or more other races (including other Polynesian groups, but mostly Asian and/or Caucasian).

The United States Census Bureau estimates the population of Hawaii was 1,431,603 on July 1, 2015; an increase of 5.24% since the 2010 United States Census.[77]

Template:As of, Hawaii had an estimated population of 1,431,603; an increase of 12,042 from the previous year and an increase of 71,302 (5.24%) since 2010. This includes a natural increase of 48,111 (96,028 births minus 47,917 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 16,956 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 30,068; migration within the country produced a net loss of 13,112 people.

The center of population of Hawaii is located between the two islands of O'ahu and Moloka'i. Large numbers of Native Hawaiians have moved to Las Vegas, which has been called the "ninth island" of Hawaii.[78][79]

Hawaii has a de facto population of over 1.4Template:Nbspmillion, due in part to a large number of military personnel and tourist residents. O'ahu is the most populous island; it has the highest population density with a resident population of just under one million in Template:Convert, approximately 1,650 people per square mile.Template:EfnTemplate:Citation needed Hawaii's 1.4Template:Nbsp;million residents, spread across Template:Convert of land, result in an average population density of 188.6 persons per square mile.[80] The state has a lower population density than Ohio and Illinois.[81]

The average projected lifespan of people born in Hawaii in 2000 is 79.8 years; 77.1 years if male, 82.5 if female—longer than the average lifespan of any other U.S. state.[82] Template:Asof the U.S. military reported it had 42,371 personnel on the islands.[83]

Historical population[84]
Year Population Notes
1778 300,000
1805 264,160
1831 130,313 Census
1850 82,000
1853 73,134 2,119 foreigners
1872 56,897
1876 53,900
1884 80,000 The native population continues to decline.
1890 40,000 native Hawaiians
1900 154,001 About 25% Hawaiian/part-Hawaiian; 40% Japanese; 16% Chinese; 12% Portuguese; and about 5% other Caucasian
1910 191,874 26,041 Hawaiians and 12,056 part-Hawaiians
1920 255,881 42.7% of the population is of Japanese descent.
1930 368,336
1940 420,770
1950 499,794
1960 632,772
1970 769,913
1980 964,691
1990 1,108,228
2000 1,211,537 239,655 native Hawaiians; Japanese: 21%; Filipino: 17.7%; Chinese: 8.3%; German: 5.8%
2010 1,360,301 10% Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders; Two or more races may include some of the remainder

AncestryEdit

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File:Hermann A. Widemann and family, ca. 1860s.jpg

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According to the 2010 United States Census, Hawaii had a population of 1,360,301. The state's population identified as 38.6% Asian; 24.7% White (22.7% Non-Hispanic White Alone); 23.6% from two or more races; 10.0% Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders; 8.9% Hispanics and Latinos of any race; 1.6% Black or African American; 1.2% from some other race; and 0.3% Native American and Alaska Native.[85]

Hawaii Racial Breakdown of Population
Racial composition 1970[86] 1990[86] 2000[87] 2010[88] est. 2015[89]
White 38.8% 33.4% 24.3% 24.7% 26.7%
Asian 57.7% 61.8% 41.6% 38.6% 37.3%
Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander
9.4% 10.0% 9.9%
Black 1.0% 2.5% 1.8% 1.6% 2.6%
Native American and Alaskan Native 0.1% 0.5% 0.3% 0.3% 0.5%
Other race 2.4% 1.9% 1.2% 1.2%
Two or more races 21.4% 23.6% 23.0%

Hawaii has the highest percentage of Asian Americans and multiracial Americans and the lowest percentage of White Americans of any state. It is the only state where Asian Americans identify as the largest ethnic group. In 2011, 14.5% of births were to white, non-Hispanic parents.[90] Hawaii's Asian population consists mainly of 198,000 (14.6%) Filipino Americans, 185,000 (13.6%) Japanese Americans, roughly 55,000 (4.0%) Chinese Americans, and 24,000 (1.8%) Korean Americans.Template:Citation needed There are over 80,000 Indigenous Hawaiians—5.9% of the population.[91] Including those with partial ancestry, Samoan Americans constitute 2.8% of Hawaii's population, and Tongan Americans constitute 0.6%.[92]

Over 120,000 (8.8%) of Hispanic and Latino Americans live in Hawaii. Mexican Americans number over 35,000 (2.6%); Puerto Ricans exceed 44,000 (3.2%). Multiracial Americans constitute almost 25% of Hawaii's population, exceeding 320,000 people. Eurasian Americans are a prominent mixed-race group, numbering about 66,000 (4.9%). The Non-Hispanic White population numbers around 310,000—just over 20% of the population. The multi-racial population outnumbers the non-Hispanic white population by about 10,000 people.[91] In 1970, the Census Bureau reported Hawaii's population was 38.8% white and 57.7% Asian and Pacific Islander.[93]

The five largest European ancestries in Hawaii are German (7.4%), Irish (5.2%), English (4.6%), Portuguese (4.3%) and Italian (2.7%). About 82.2% of the state's residents were born in the United States. Roughly 75% of foreign-born residents originate in Asia. Hawaii is a majority-minority state. It was expected to be one of three states that will not have a non-Hispanic white plurality in 2014; the other two are California and New Mexico.[94]

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File:Early Japanese immigrants to Hawaii.jpg
File:Portuguese immigrant family in Hawaii during the 19th century.jpg
Population of Hawaii[95]
AncestryPercentageMain article:
Filipino 13.6% See Filipinos in Hawaii
Japanese 12.6% See Japanese in Hawaii
Polynesian 9.0% See Native Hawaiians
Germans 7.4% See German American
Irish 5.2% See Irish American
English 4.6% See English American
Portuguese 4.3% See Portuguese American
Chinese 4.1% See Chinese in Hawaii
Korean 3.1% See Korean American
Mexican 2.9% See Mexican American
Puerto Rican 2.8% See Puerto Rican
Italian 2.7% See Italian American
African 2.4% See African American
French 1.7% See French American
Samoan 1.3% See Samoan American
Scottish 1.2% See Scottish American

The third group of foreigners to arrive in Hawaii were from China. Chinese workers on Western trading ships settled in Hawaii starting in 1789. In 1820, the first American missionaries arrived to preach Christianity and teach the Hawaiians Western ways.[96] Template:As of, a large proportion of Hawaii's population have Asian ancestry—especially Filipino, Japanese and Chinese. Many are descendants of immigrants brought to work on the sugarcane plantations in the mid-to-late 19th century. The first 153 Japanese immigrants arrived in Hawaii on June 19, 1868. They were not approved by the then-current Japanese government because the contract was between a broker and the Tokugawa shogunate—by then replaced by the Meiji Restoration. The first Japanese current-government-approved immigrants arrived on February 9, 1885, after Kalākaua's petition to Emperor Meiji when Kalākaua visited Japan in 1881.[97][98]

Almost 13,000 Portuguese migrants had arrived by 1899; they also worked on the sugarcane plantations.[99] By 1901, over 5,000 Puerto Ricans were living in Hawaii.[100]

LanguagesEdit

English (General American) and Hawaiian are listed as Hawaii's "official languages" in the state's 1978 constitution. Article XV, Section 4 specifies that "Hawaiian shall be required for public acts and transactions only as provided by law". [[Hawaiian Pidgin|HawaiTemplate:Okinai Creole English]], locally referred to as "Pidgin", is the native language of many native residents and is a second language for many others.Template:Citation needed

As of the 2000 Census, 73.44% of Hawaii residents aged five and older exclusively speak English at home.[101] According to the 2008 American Community Survey, 74.6% of Hawaii's residents over the age of five speak only English at home.[95] In their homes, 21.0% of state residents speak an additional Asian language, 2.6% speak Spanish, 1.6% speak other Indo-European languages and 0.2% speak another language.[95]

After English, other languages popularly spoken in the state are Tagalog, Japanese and Ilokano. Significant numbers of European immigrants and their descendants also speak their native languages; the most numerous are German, Portuguese, Italian and French.Template:Citation needed 5.37% of residents speak Tagalog—which includes non-native speakers of Filipino language, the national, co-official, Tagalog-based language; 4.96% speak Japanese and 4.05% speak Ilokano; 1.2% speak Chinese, 1.68% speak Hawaiian; 1.66% speak Spanish; 1.61% speak Korean; and 1.01% speak Samoan.[101]

The keyboard layout used for Hawaiian is QWERTY.[102]

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HawaiianEdit

Template:Main article The Hawaiian language has about 2,000 native speakers, about 0.15% of the total population.[103] According to the United States Census, there were over 24,000 total speakers of the language in Hawaii in 2006–2008.[104] Hawaiian is a Polynesian member of the Austronesian language family.[103] It is closely related to other Polynesian languages, such as Marquesan, Tahitian, Māori, Rapa Nui (the language of Easter Island), and less closely to Samoan and Tongan.Template:Citation needed

According to Schütz, the Marquesans colonized the archipelago in roughly 300 CE[105] and were later followed by waves of seafarers from the Society Islands, Samoa and Tonga.Template:Citation needed

These Polynesians remained in the islands; they eventually became the Hawaiian people and their languages evolved into the Hawaiian language.[106] Kimura and Wilson say, "[l]inguists agree that Hawaiian is closely related to Eastern Polynesian, with a particularly strong link in the Southern Marquesas, and a secondary link in Tahiti, which may be explained by voyaging between the Hawaiian and Society Islands".[107] Before the arrival of Captain James Cook, the Hawaiian language had no written form. That form was developed mainly by American Protestant missionaries between 1820 and 1826. They assigned to the Hawaiian phonemes letters from the Latin alphabet.Template:Citation needed

Interest in Hawaiian increased significantly in the late 20th century. With the help of the Office of Hawaiian Affairs, specially designated immersion schools in which all subjects would be taught in Hawaiian were established. The University of Hawaii developed a Hawaiian language graduate studies program. Municipal codes were altered to favor Hawaiian place and street names for new civic developments.Template:Citation needed Hawai'i Sign Language, a sign language for the deaf based on the Hawaiian language, has been in use in the islands since the early 1800s. It is dwindling in numbers due to American Sign Language supplanting HSL through schooling and various other domains.Template:Citation needed

Hawaiian distinguishes between long and short vowel sounds. In modern practice, vowel length is indicated with a macron (kahakō). Hawaiian-language newspapers (nūpepa) published from 1834 to 1948 and traditional native speakers of Hawaiian generally omit the marks in their own writing. The Template:Okinaokina and kahakō are intended to help non-native speakers.Template:Citation needed The Hawaiian language uses the glottal stop ([[ʻOkina|Template:Okinaokina]]) as a consonant. It is written as a symbol similar to the apostrophe or left-hanging (opening) single quotation mark.Template:Citation needed

Hawaiian PidginEdit

Template:Main article Template:Unreferenced section Some residents of Hawaii speak [[Hawaiian Pidgin|HawaiTemplate:Okinai Creole English]] (HCE), endonymically called pidgin or pidgin English. The lexicon of HCE derives mainly from English but also uses words that have derived from Hawaiian, Chinese, Japanese, Portuguese, Ilocano and Tagalog. During the 19th century, the increase in immigration—mainly from China, Japan, Portugal—especially from the Azores and Madeira, and Spain—catalyzed the development of a hybrid variant of English known to its speakers as pidgin. By the early 20th century, pidgin speakers had children who acquired it as their first language. HCE speakers use some Hawaiian words without those words being considered archaic.Template:Clarify Most place names are retained from Hawaiian, as are some names for plants and animals. For example, tuna fish is often called by its Hawaiian name, ahi.Template:Citation needed

HCE speakers have modified the meanings of some English words. For example, "aunty" and "uncle" may either refer to any adult who is a friend or be used to show respect to an elder. Syntax and grammar follow distinctive rules different from those of General American English. For example, instead of "it is hot today, isn't it?", an HCE speaker would say simply "stay hot, eh?"Template:Efn The term da kine is used as a filler; a substitute for virtually any word or phrase. During the surfing boom in Hawaii, HCE was influenced by surfer slang. Some HCE expressions, such as brah and da kine, have found their ways elsewhere through surfing communities.Template:Citation needed

ReligionEdit

File:Perspective view of northwest elevation - Makiki Christian Church, 829 Pensacola Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI HABS HI-533-1.tif

Christianity is the most widespread religion in Hawaii. It is mainly represented by various Protestants, Catholics and Mormons. Buddhism is the second most popular religion, especially among the archipelago's Japanese community. Unaffilliated account for one-quarter of the population.

The largest denominations by number of adherents were the Catholic Church with 249,619 adherents in 2010[108] and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 68,128 adherents in 2009.[109] The third-largest religious group includes all non-denominational churches, with 128 congregations and 32,000 members. The third-largest denominational group is the United Church of Christ, with 115 congregations and 20,000 members. The Southern Baptist Convention has 108 congregations and 18,000 members in Hawaii.[110]

According to data provided by religious establishments, religion in Hawaii in 2000 was distributed as follows:[111][112] Template:Div col

  • Christianity: 351,000 (29%)
  • Buddhism: 110,000 (9%)
  • Judaism: 10,000 (0.8%)
  • Other: 100,000 (10%)Template:Efn-lg
  • Unaffiliated: 650,000 (51%)Template:Efn-lg

Template:Div col end

Template:Notelist-lg

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A Pew poll found that the religious composition was as follows:

Religious affiliation in Hawaii (2014)[113]
Affiliation % of Hawai'i's population
Christian Template:Bartable
Protestant Template:Bartable
Evangelical Protestant Template:Bartable
Mainline Protestant Template:Bartable
Black church Template:Bartable
Catholic Template:Bartable
Mormon Template:Bartable
Jehovah's Witnesses Template:Bartable
Eastern Orthodox Template:Bartable
Other Christian Template:Bartable
Unaffiliated Template:Bartable
Nothing in particular Template:Bartable
Agnostic Template:Bartable
Atheist Template:Bartable
Non-Christian faiths Template:Bartable
Jewish Template:Bartable
Muslim Template:Bartable
Buddhist Template:Bartable
Hindu Template:Bartable
Other Non-Christian faiths Template:Bartable
Don't know Template:Bartable
Total Template:Bartable

Birth dataEdit

Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Live Births by Race/Ethnicity of Mother
Race 2013[114] 2014[115] 2015[116]
Asian 12,203 (64.3%) 11,535 (62.2%) 11,443 (62.1%)
White: 6,045 (31.8%) 6,368 (34.3%) 6,322 (34.3%)
> Non-Hispanic White 4,940 (26.0%) 4,881 (26.3%) 4,803 (26.1%)
Black 671 (3.5%) 617 (3.3%) 620 (3.3%)
Native 68 (0.3%) 30 (0.2%) 35 (0.2%)
Hispanic (of any race) 3,003 (15.8%) 2,764 (14.9%) 2,775 (15.1%)
Total Hawai'i 18,987 (100%) 18,550 (100%) 18,420 (100%)

LGBTEdit

Hawaii has had a long history of queer identities. Māhū people, who often traversed gender as defined by Western standards, were a respected group of pre-colonization people who were widely known in society as healers. Another Hawaiian word, aikāne, referred to same-sex relationships. According to journals written by Captain Cook's crew, it is widely believed that many aliTemplate:Okinai engaged in aikāne relationships. Hawaiian scholar [[Lilikalā Kameʻeleihiwa|Lilikalā KameTemplate:Okinaeleihiwa]] said, "If you didn't sleep with a man, how could you trust him when you went into battle? How would you know if he was going to be the warrior that would protect you at all costs, if he wasn't your lover?"[117]

A 2012 poll by Gallup found that Hawaii had the largest proportion of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) adults in the U.S., at 5.1%, comprising an estimated adult LGBT population of 53,966 individuals. The number of same-sex couple households in 2010 was 3,239; a 35.45% increase of figures from a decade earlier.[118][119] In 2013, Hawaii became the fifteenth U.S. state to legalize same-sex marriage; a University of Hawaii researcher said the law may boost tourism by $217 million.[120]

EconomyEdit

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File:Pineapple field near Honolulu, Hawaii, 1907 (CHS-418).jpg
File:'Two Surfer Girls' by William Fulton Soare, oil on canvas, c. 1935.JPG
File:US Navy 111218-N-RI884-097 The U.S. Pacific Fleet Marching Band participates in a parade through downtown Waikiki honoring Japanese-American vetera.jpg

The history of Hawaii's economy can be traced through a succession of dominant industries; sandalwood,[121] whaling,[122] sugarcane, pineapple, the military, tourism and education. Since statehood in 1959, tourism has been the largest industry, contributing 24.3% of the gross state product (GSP) in 1997, despite efforts to diversify. The state's gross output for 2003 was Template:US$Template:Nbspbillion; per capita income for Hawaii residents in 2014 was Template:US$.[123] Hawaiian exports include food and clothing. These industries play a small role in the Hawaiian economy, due to the shipping distance to viable markets, such as the West Coast of the contiguous U.S. The state's food exports include coffee, macadamia nuts, pineapple, livestock, sugarcane and honey.[124]

By weight, honey bees may be the state's most valuable export.[125] According to the Hawaii Agricultural Statistics Service, agricultural sales were Template:US$Template:Nbspmillion from diversified agriculture, Template:US$Template:Nbspmillion from pineapple, and Template:US$Template:Nbspmillion from sugarcane. Hawaii's relatively consistent climate has attracted the seed industry, which is able to test three generations of crops per year on the islands, compared with one or two on the mainland.[126] Seeds yielded Template:US$ million in 2012, supporting 1,400 workers.[127]

As of December 2015, the state's unemployment rate was 3.2%.[128] In 2009, the United States military spent Template:US$Template:Nbspbillion in Hawaii, accounting for 18% of spending in the state for that year. 75,000 United States Department of Defense personnel live in Hawaii.[129] According to a 2013 study by Phoenix Marketing International, Hawaii had the fourth-largest number of millionaires per capita in the United States, with a ratio of 7.18%.[130]

TaxationEdit

Hawaii residents pay the most per person in state taxes in the United States.[131] Millions of tourists pay general excise tax and hotel room tax.[131]

The Hawaii Tax Foundation considers the state's tax burden too high, which it says contributes to higher prices and the perception of an unfriendly business climate.[131]

State Senator Sam Slom says state taxes are comparatively higher than other states because the state government handles education, health care, and social services that are usually handled at a county or municipal level in most other states.[131]

Cost of livingEdit

The cost of living in Hawaii, specifically Honolulu, is high compared to that of most major U.S. cities. However, the cost of living in Honolulu is 6.7% lower than in New York City and 3.6% lower than in San Francisco.[132] These numbers may not take into account some costs, such as increased travel costs for flights, additional shipping fees, and the loss of promotional participation opportunities for customers outside the contiguous U.S. While some online stores offer free shipping on orders to Hawaii,[133] many merchants exclude Hawaii, Alaska, Puerto Rico and certain other U.S. territories.Template:Citation needed

Hawaiian Electric Industries, a privately owned company, provides 95% of the state's population with electricity, mostly from fossil-fuel power stations. Average electricity prices in October 2014 (Template:Convert) were nearly three times the national average (Template:Convert) and 80% higher than the second-highest state, Connecticut.[134]

The median home value in Hawaii in the 2000 U.S. Census was Template:US$, while the national median home value was Template:US$. Hawaii home values were the highest of all states, including California with a median home value of Template:US$.[135] Research from the National Association of Realtors places the 2010 median sale price of a single family home in Honolulu, Hawaii, at Template:US$ and the U.S. median sales price at Template:US$. The sale price of single family homes in Hawaii was the highest of any U.S. city in 2010, just above that of the Silicon Valley area of California (Template:US$).[136]

Hawaii's very high cost of living is the result of several interwoven factors of the global economy in addition to domestic U.S. government trade policy. Like other regions with desirable weather throughout the year, such as areas of California, Arizona and Florida, Hawaii's residents can be considered to be subject to a "Sunshine tax". This situation is further exacerbated by the natural factors of geography and world distribution that lead to higher prices for goods due to increased shipping costs, a problem which many island states and territories suffer from as well. The situation is compounded even further by what could possibly be the single largest contributor to the high costs of living in Hawaii, a U.S. trade law known as the Jones Act, or the Merchant Marine Act of 1920. This trade regulation prohibits any foreign-flagged ships from carrying cargo between two American ports—a practice known as cabotage. Most consumer goods in the United States are manufactured by outsourced labor in East Asia, then transported by container ships to ports on the U.S. mainland, and Hawaii also receives the same goods. Being located in the central Pacific Ocean, right between major Pacific shipping lanes, it would be very economical to unload Hawaiian-bound goods in Honolulu, before continuing on to the mainland. However, this would effectively make the second leg of the voyage between Hawaii and the mainland a domestic route between two American ports. Because most large cargo ships operate under foreign "flags of convenience" such as Liberia, Vanuatu or Papua New Guinea, allowing them to avoid the more stringent, and thus more costly, regulations of developed nations' ports, the domestic leg of the voyage would be disallowed by the Jones Act. Instead, those cargo ships must proceed directly to the West Coast, where distributors break bulk and transport the Hawaiian-bound, Asian-manufactured goods back across the ocean by U.S.-flagged ships and increasing the length of the voyage by more than 50%. This highly inefficient system of shipping Hawaii's consumer cargo comes at a very hefty price for the average Hawaiian citizen, and makes the cost of living in Hawaii much, much higher than it would otherwise be.[137][138]

Hawaiian consumers ultimately bear the expense of transporting goods imposed by the Jones Act. This law makes Hawaii less competitive than West Coast ports as a shopping destination for tourists from countries with much higher taxes like Japan, even though prices for Asian-manufactured goods should be cheaper because Hawaii is much closer than mainland states to Asia.[139][140]

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CultureEdit

Template:See also Template:Refimprove section

The aboriginal culture of Hawaii is Polynesian. Hawaii represents the northernmost extension of the vast Polynesian Triangle of the south and central Pacific Ocean. While traditional Hawaiian culture remains as vestiges in modern Hawaiian society, there are re-enactments of the ceremonies and traditions throughout the islands. Some of these cultural influences, including the popularity (in greatly modified form) of [[luau|lūTemplate:Okinaau]] and hula, are strong enough to affect the wider United States.Template:Citation needed

CuisineEdit

File:Man with a Yoke Carrying Taro by Joseph Strong, oil on canvas board, 1880, Honolulu Museum of Art, accession 12692.1.JPG

The cuisine of Hawaii is a fusion of many foods brought by immigrants to the Hawaiian Islands, including the earliest Polynesians and Native Hawaiian cuisine, and American, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Polynesian and Portuguese origins. Plant and animal food sources are imported from around the world for agricultural use in Hawaii. Poi, a starch made by pounding taro, is one of the traditional foods of the islands. Many local restaurants serve the ubiquitous plate lunch, which features two scoops of rice, a simplified version of American macaroni salad and a variety of toppings including hamburger patties, a fried egg, and gravy of a loco moco, Japanese style tonkatsu or the traditional lūTemplate:Okinaau favorites, including kālua pork and laulau. Spam musubi is an example of the fusion of ethnic cuisine that developed on the islands among the mix of immigrant groups and military personnel. In the 1990s, a group of chefs developed Hawaii regional cuisine as a contemporary fusion cuisine.Template:Citation needed

Customs and etiquetteEdit

Template:Main article Some key customs and etiquette in Hawaii are as follows: when visiting a home, it is considered good manners to bring a small gift for one's host (for example, a dessert). Thus, parties are usually in the form of potlucks. Most locals take their shoes off before entering a home. It is customary for Hawaiian families, regardless of ethnicity, to hold a luau to celebrate a child's first birthday. It is also customary at Hawaiian weddings, especially at Filipino weddings, for the bride and groom to do a money dance (also called the pandanggo). Print media and local residents recommend that one refer to non-Hawaiians as "locals of Hawaii" or "people of Hawaii".

Hawaiian mythologyEdit

File:Ethnologisches Museum Dahlem Berlin Mai 2006 009.jpg

Template:Main article

Hawaiian mythology comprises the legends, historical tales, and sayings of the ancient Hawaiian people. It is considered a variant of a more general Polynesian mythology that developed a unique character for several centuries before circa 1800. It is associated with the Hawaiian religion, which was officially suppressed in the 19th century but was kept alive by some practitioners to the modern day.Template:Citation needed Prominent figures and terms include Aumakua, the spirit of an ancestor or family god and Kāne, the highest of the four major Hawaiian deities.Template:Citation needed

Polynesian mythologyEdit

Template:Main article

File:Tahiti-Oro.jpg

Polynesian mythology is the oral traditions of the people of Polynesia, a grouping of Central and South Pacific Ocean island archipelagos in the Polynesian triangle together with the scattered cultures known as the Polynesian outliers. Polynesians speak languages that descend from a language reconstructed as Proto-Polynesian that was probably spoken in the area around Tonga and Samoa in around 1000 BCE.Template:Citation needed

Prior to the 15th century, Polynesian people migrated east to the Cook Islands, and from there to other island groups such as Tahiti and the Marquesas. Their descendants later discovered the islands Tahiti, Rapa Nui and later the Hawaiian Islands and New Zealand.Template:Citation needed

The Polynesian languages are part of the Austronesian language family. Many are close enough in terms of vocabulary and grammar to be mutually intelligible. There are also substantial cultural similarities between the various groups, especially in terms of social organization, childrearing, horticulture, building and textile technologies. Their mythologies in particular demonstrate local reworkings of commonly shared tales. The Polynesian cultures each have distinct but related oral traditions; legends or myths are traditionally considered to recount ancient history (the time of "pō") and the adventures of gods ("atua") and deified ancestors.Template:Citation needed

List of state parksEdit

Template:Main article

There are many Hawaiian state parks.

LiteratureEdit

Template:Main article

The literature of Hawaii is diverse and includes authors Kiana Davenport, Lois-Ann Yamanaka, and Kaui Hart Hemmings. Hawaiian magazines include Hana Hou!, Hawaii Business Magazine and Honolulu, among others.

MusicEdit

Template:Main article

File:Bonnaroo08 jackjohnson2 lg.jpg

[[File:Chã das Caldeiras-Musicien.jpg|thumb|left|upright|alt = A young man holds a small four-stringed instrument and strums.|A young Cape Verdean man plays the Portuguese cavaquinho, a four-stringed instrument from which the [[ukulele|Template:Okinaukulele]] is descended.]]

The music of Hawaii includes traditional and popular styles, ranging from native Hawaiian folk music to modern rock and hip hop. Hawaii's musical contributions to the music of the United States are out of proportion to the state's small size. Styles such as slack-key guitar are well-known worldwide, while Hawaiian-tinged music is a frequent part of Hollywood soundtracks. Hawaii also made a major contribution to country music with the introduction of the steel guitar.[141]

Traditional Hawaiian folk music is a major part of the state's musical heritage. The Hawaiian people have inhabited the islands for centuries and have retained much of their traditional musical knowledge. Their music is largely religious in nature, and includes chanting and dance music. Hawaiian music has had an enormous impact on the music of other Polynesian islands; according to Peter Manuel, the influence of Hawaiian music a "unifying factor in the development of modern Pacific musics".[142] Native Hawaiian musician and Hawaiian sovereignty activist Israel Kamakawiwoʻole, famous for his medley of "Somewhere Over the Rainbow/What a Wonderful World", was named "The Voice of Hawaii" by NPR in 2010 in its 50 great voices series.[143]

TourismEdit

Template:Main article

File:Punaluu Beach Park, Big Island, Hawaii.jpg

Tourism is an important part of the Hawaiian economy. In 2003, according to state government data, there were over 6.4 million visitors, with expenditures of over $10 billion, to the Hawaiian Islands.[144] Due to the mild year-round weather, tourist travel is popular throughout the year. The major holidays are the most popular times for outsiders to visit, especially in the winter months. Substantial numbers of Japanese tourists still visit the islands but have now been surpassed by Chinese and Koreans due to the collapse of the value of the Yen and the weak Japanese economy. The average Japanese stays only 5 days while other Asians spend over 9.5 days and spend 25% more.[145]Template:Citation needed

Hawaii hosts numerous cultural events. The annual Merrie Monarch Festival is an international Hula competition.[146] The Hawaii International Film Festival is the premier film festival for Pacific rim cinema.[147] Honolulu hosts the state's long-running LGBT film festival, the Rainbow Film Festival.[148][149]

HealthEdit

Template:Main article Template:As of, Hawaii's health care system insures 92% of residents. Under the state's plan, businesses are required to provide insurance to employees who work more than twenty hours per week. Heavy regulation of insurance companies helps reduce the cost to employers. Due in part to heavy emphasis on preventive care, Hawaiians require hospital treatment less frequently than the rest of the United States, while total health care expenses measured as a percentage of state GDP are substantially lower.Template:Citation needed Proponents of universal health care elsewhere in the U.S. sometimes use Hawaii as a model for proposed federal and state health care plans.Template:Citation needed

EducationEdit

Public schoolsEdit

Template:Main articleTemplate:See also [[File:Waianae High School (5888481033).jpg|thumb|alt=Façade of a public high school.|Waianae High School, located in [[Waianae, Hawaii|WaiTemplate:Okinaanae]], houses an educational community media center.]]

Hawaii has the only school system within the U.S. that is unified statewide. Policy decisions are made by the fourteen-member state Board of Education, which sets policy and hires the superintendent of schools, who oversees the state Department of Education. The Department of Education is divided into seven districts; four on OTemplate:Okinaahu and one for each of the other three counties. The main rationale for centralization is to combat inequalities between highly populated OTemplate:Okinaahu and the more rural Neighbor Islands, and between lower-income and more affluent areas. In most of the U.S., schools are funded from local property taxes. Educators struggle with children of non-native-English-speaking immigrants, whose cultures are different from those of the mainland, where most course materials and testing standards originate.Template:Citation needed

Public elementary, middle and high school test scores in Hawaii are below national averages on tests mandated under the No Child Left Behind Act. The Hawaii Board of Education requires all eligible students to take these tests and report all student test scores; some other states—Texas and Michigan, for example—do not. This may have unbalanced the results that reported in August 2005 that of 282 schools across the state, 185 failed to reach federal minimum performance standards in mathematics and reading.[150] The ACT college placement tests show that in 2005, seniors scored slightly above the national average (21.9 compared with 20.9),[151] but in the widely accepted SAT examinations, Hawaii's college-bound seniors tend to score below the national average in all categories except mathematics.

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Private schoolsEdit

Hawaii has the highest rates of private school attendance in the nation.[2] During the 2011–2012 school year, Hawaii public and charter schools had an enrollment of 181,213,[152] while private schools had 37,695.[153] Private schools educated over 17% of students in Hawaii that school year, nearly three times the approximate national average of 6%.[154] It has four of the largest independent schools; [[Iolani School|Template:OkinaIolani School]], Kamehameha Schools, Mid-Pacific Institute and Punahou School. Pacific Buddhist Academy, the second Buddhist high school in the U.S. and first such school in Hawaii, was founded in 2003. The first native controlled public charter school was the Kanu O Ka Aina New Century Charter School.Template:Citation needed

Independent and charter schools can select their students, while the public schools are open to all students in their district. The Kamehameha Schools are the only schools in the U.S. that openly grant admission to students based on ancestry; collectively, they are one of the wealthiest schools in the United States, if not the world, having over eleven billion US dollars in estate assets.[155] In 2005, Kamehameha enrolled 5,398 students, 8.4% of the Native Hawaiian children in the state.[156]

Colleges and universitiesEdit

Template:See also Template:Unreferenced section

File:University of Hawaii at Hilo.jpg

Graduates of secondary schools in Hawaii often enter directly into the workforce. Some attend colleges and universities on the mainland or other countries, and the rest attend an institution of higher learning in Hawaii. The largest is the University of Hawaii System, which consists of: the research university at Mānoa, two comprehensive campuses at Hilo and [[University of Hawaii-West Oahu|West OTemplate:Okinaahu]], and seven community colleges. Private universities include Brigham Young University–Hawaii, Chaminade University of Honolulu, Hawaii Pacific University, and Wayland Baptist University. Saint Stephen Diocesan Center is a seminary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu. Kona hosts the University of the Nations, which is not an accredited university.

Pūnana LeoEdit

Template:Main article First opened in 1984 illegally in Kekaha, Kaua'i, the Pūnana Leo or "Language Nest" (lit. "Nest of Voices") were the first indigenous language immersion schools in the United States. Modelled after the Māori language Kōhanga reo of New Zealand, they provide preschool aged children the opportunity to engage in early education through a Hawaiian language medium, generally taught by elders. Graduates from the Pūnana Leo schools have achieved several measures of academic success in later life. As of 2006, there were a total of eleven Pūnana Leo preschools, with locations on five of the islands.

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TransportationEdit

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File:HonoluluAirportWelcomeSign.jpg

A system of state highways encircles each main island. Only OTemplate:Okinaahu has federal highways, and is the only area outside the contiguous 48 states to have signed Interstate highways. Narrow, winding roads and congestion in populated places can slow traffic. Each major island has a public bus system.

Honolulu International Airport (IATA:Template:NbspHNL), which shares runways with the adjacent Hickam Field (IATA:Template:NbspHIK), is the major commercial aviation hub of Hawaii. The commercial aviation airport offers intercontinental service to North America, Asia, Australia and Oceania. Hawaiian Airlines, Mokulele Airlines and go! use jets to provide services between the large airports in Honolulu, LīhuTemplate:Okinae, Kahului, Kona and Hilo. Island Air and Pacific Wings serve smaller airports. These airlines also provide air freight services between the islands. On May 30, 2017, the airport was officially renamed as the Daniel K. Inouye International Airport (HNL), after U.S. Senator Daniel K. Inouye[157].

Until air passenger services began in the 1920s,[158] private boats were the sole means of traveling between the islands. Seaflite operated hydrofoils between the major islands in the mid-1970s.[159]

The Hawaii Superferry operated between OTemplate:Okinaahu and Maui between December 2007 and March 2009, with additional routes planned for other islands. Protests and legal problems over environmental impact statements ended the service, though the company operating Superferry has expressed a wish to recommence ferry services in the future.[160] Currently there are passenger ferry services in Maui County between MolokaTemplate:Okinai and Maui,[161] and between LanaTemplate:Okinai and Maui,[162] though neither of these take vehicles. Currently Norwegian Cruise Lines and Princess Cruises provide passenger cruise ship services between the larger islands.[163][164]

Template:Clear

RailEdit

At one time Hawaii had a network of railroads on each of the larger islands that transported farm commodities and passengers. Most were Template:RailGauge narrow gauge systems but there were some Template:RailGauge gauge on some of the smaller islands. The standard gauge in the U.S. is Template:RailGauge. By far the largest railroad was the Oahu Railway and Land Company (OR&L) that ran lines from Honolulu across the western and northern part of Oahu.[165]

The OR&L was important for moving troops and goods during World War II. Traffic on this line was busy enough for signals to be used to facilitate movement of trains and to require wigwag signals at some railroad crossings for the protection of motorists. The main line was officially abandoned in 1947, although part of it was bought by the U.S. Navy and operated until 1970. Template:Convert of track remain; preservationists occasionally run trains over a portion of this line.[165] The Honolulu High-Capacity Transit Corridor Project aims to add elevated passenger rail on Oahu to relieve highway congestion.[2]

GovernanceEdit

Template:Gallery [[File:Iolani Palace (1328).JPG|thumb|The [[Iolani Palace|Template:OkinaIolani Palace]] in Honolulu, formerly the residence of the Hawaiian monarch, was the capitol of the Republic of Hawaii.]]

Political subdivisions and local governmentEdit

Template:See also The movement of the Hawaiian royal family from HawaiTemplate:Okinai Island to Maui, and subsequently to OTemplate:Okinaahu, explains the modern-day distribution of population centers. Kamehameha III chose the largest city, Honolulu, as his capital because of its natural harbor—the present-day Honolulu Harbor. Now the state capital, Honolulu is located along the southeast coast of OTemplate:Okinaahu. The previous capital was Lahaina, Maui, and before that Kailua-Kona, HawaiTemplate:Okinai. Some major towns are Hilo; [[Kāne'ohe, Hawai'i|KāneTemplate:Okinaohe]]; Kailua; Pearl City; Waipahu; Kahului; Kailua-Kona. Kīhei; and [[Lihue, Hawaii|LīhuTemplate:Okinae]].

Hawaii comprises five counties: the City and County of Honolulu, Hawaii County, Maui County, Kauai County, and Kalawao County.

Hawaii has the fewest local governments among U.S. states.[166][167] Unique to this state is the lack of municipal governments. All local governments are generally administered at the county level. The only incorporated area in the state is Honolulu County, a consolidated city–county that governs the entire island of Oahu. County executives are referred to as mayors; these are the Mayor of Hawaii County, Mayor of Honolulu, [[Mayor of Kauai|Mayor of KauaTemplate:Okinai]], and the Mayor of Maui. The mayors are all elected in nonpartisan elections. Kalawao County has no elected government,[168] and as mentioned above there are no local school districts and instead all local public education is administered at the state level by the Hawaii Department of Education. The remaining local governments are special districts.[166][167]

State governmentEdit

The state government of Hawaii is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from the kingdom era of Hawaiian history. As codified in the Constitution of Hawaii, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. The executive branch is led by the Governor of Hawaii, who is assisted by the Lieutenant Governor of Hawaii, both of whom are elected on the same ticket. The governor is the only state public official elected statewide; all others are appointed by the governor. The lieutenant governor acts as the Secretary of State. The governor and lieutenant governor oversee twenty agencies and departments from offices in the State Capitol. The official residence of the governor is Washington Place. Template:See

The legislative branch consists of the bicameral Hawaii State Legislature, which is composed of the 51-member Hawaii House of Representatives led by the Speaker of the House, and the 25-member Hawaii Senate led by the President of the Senate. The Legislature meets at the State Capitol. The unified judicial branch of Hawaii is the Hawaii State Judiciary. The state's highest court is the Supreme Court of Hawaii, which uses [[Aliiolani Hale|AliTemplate:Okinaiōlani Hale]] as its chambers.

Federal governmentEdit

Template:Gallery

Hawaii is represented in the United States Congress by two senators and two representatives. Template:As of, all four seats are held by Democrats. Colleen Hanabusa won a special election for the 1st congressional district representing southeastern Oahu, including central Honolulu, on November 8, 2016 to finish the term of Rep. Mark Takai who died July 20, 2016. Tulsi Gabbard represents the 2nd congressional district, representing the rest of the state, which is largely rural and semi-rural.[169]

Brian Schatz is the senior United States Senator from Hawaii. He was appointed to the office on December 26, 2012, by Governor Neil Abercrombie, following the death of former senator Daniel Inouye. The state's junior senator is Mazie Hirono, the former representative from the second congressional district. Hirono is the first female Asian American senator and the first Buddhist senator. Hawaii incurred the biggest seniority shift between the 112th and 113th Congresses. The state went from a delegation consisting of senators who were first and twenty-first in seniorityTemplate:Efn to their respective replacements, relative newcomers Schatz and Hirono.[170]

Federal officials in Hawaii are based at the Prince Kūhiō Federal Building near the Aloha Tower and Honolulu Harbor. The Federal Bureau of Investigation, Internal Revenue Service and the Secret Service maintain their offices there; the building is also the site of the federal District Court for the District of Hawaii and the United States Attorney for the District of Hawaii.

PoliticsEdit

Template:See also

Gubernatorial election results[171]
Year Democratic Republican
align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|1959 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|48.7% 82,074 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|51.1% 86,213
align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|1962 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|58.3% 114,308 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|41.7% 81,707
align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|1966 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|51.1% 108,840 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|48.9% 104,324
align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|1970 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|57.7% 137,812 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|42.4% 101,249
align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|1974 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|54.6% 136,262 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|45.4% 113,388
align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|1978 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic| 54.5% 153,394 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican| 44.3% 124,610
align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|1982 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|45.2% 141,043 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|26.1% 81,507
align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|1986 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|52.0% 173,655 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|48.0% 160,460
align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|1990 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|59.8% 203,491 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|38.6% 131,310
align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|1994 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|36.6% 134,978 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|29.2% 107,908
align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|1998 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|50.1% 204,206 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|48.8% 198,952
align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|2002 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|47.0% 179,647 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|51.6% 197,009
align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|2006 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|35.4% 121,717 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|62.5% 215,313
align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|2010 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|57.8% 222,724 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|40.8% 157,311
align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|2014 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|49.0% 181,106 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|36.7% 135,775
Presidential election results[171]
Year Democratic Republican
align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|1960 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|50.0% 92,410 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|50.0% 92,295
align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|1964 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|78.8% 163,249 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|21.2% 44,022
align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|1968 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|59.8% 141,324 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|38.7% 91,425
align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|1972 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|37.5% 101,409 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|62.4% 168,865
align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|1976 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|50.6% 147,375 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|48.1% 140,003
align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|1980 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic| 44.8% 135,879 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican| 42.9% 130,112
align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|1984 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|43.8% 147,154 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|55.1% 185,050
align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|1988 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|54.3% 192,364 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|44.8% 158,625
align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|1992 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|48.1% 179,310 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|36.7% 136,822
align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|1996 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|56.9% 205,012 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|31.6% 113,943
align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|2000 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|55.8% 205,286 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|37.5% 137,845
align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|2004 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic| 54.0% 231,708 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|45.3% 194,191
align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|2008 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|71.9% 325,871 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|26.6% 120,566
align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|2012 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|70.6% 306,658 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|27.8% 121,015
align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|2016 align="center" Template:Party shading/Democratic|61.0% 266,891 align="center" Template:Party shading/Republican|29.4% 128,847
File:United States presidential election in Hawaii, 2016.svg

Since gaining statehood and participating in its first election inTemplate:Nbsp1960, Hawaii has supported Democrats in all but two presidential elections; 1972 andTemplate:Nbsp1984, both of which were landslide victories for Republicans Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan respectively. In Hawaii's statehood tenure, only Minnesota has supported Republican candidates fewer times in presidential elections.

Hawaii hasn't elected a Republican to represent the state in the U.S. Senate since Hiram Fong in 1970; since 1977, both of the state's U.S. Senators have been Democrats.[172][173]

In 2004, John Kerry won the state's four electoral votes by a margin of nine percentage points with 54% of the vote. Every county supported the Democratic candidate. In 1964, favorite son candidate senator Hiram Fong of Hawaii sought the Republican presidential nomination, while Patsy Mink ran in the Oregon primary in 1972.

Honolulu-born Barack Obama, then serving as United States Senator from Illinois, was elected the 44th President of the United States on November 4, 2008 and was re-elected for a second term on November 6, 2012. Obama had won the Hawaii Democratic caucus on February 19, 2008, with 76% of the vote. He was the third Hawaii-born candidate to seek the nomination of a major party and the first presidential nominee from Hawaii.[174][175]

Legal status of HawaiiEdit

Template:Main article

While Hawaii is internationally recognized as a state of the United States while also being broadly accepted as such in mainstream understanding, the legality of this status has been raised in U.S. District Court,[176] the U.N., and other international forums.[177] Domestically, the debate is a topic covered in the Kamehameha Schools curriculum.[178] On September 29, 2015 the Department of the Interior announced a procedure to recognize a Native Hawaiian government.[179][180]

Hawaiian sovereignty movementEdit

Template:Main article

Political organizations seeking some form of sovereignty for Hawaii have been active since the 1880s. Generally, their focus is on self-determination and self-governance, either for Hawaii as a new relationship akin to tribal sovereignty with US federal recognition of Native Hawaiians. A 2005 Grassroot Institute poll found the large majority of Hawaiian residents opposed the Akaka Bill.[181]

The Hawaiian sovereignty movement, which generally views the overthrow of Kingdom of Hawaii in 1893 and its subsequent annexation by the United States as illegal, seeks some form of greater autonomy for Hawaii, such as free association or independence from the United States.[182][183][184][185]

Some groups also advocate some form of redress from the United States for the 1893 overthrow of [[Liliuokalani|Queen LiliTemplate:Okinauokalani]], and for what is described as a prolonged military occupation beginning with the 1898 annexation. The movement generally views both the overthrow and annexation as illegal, with the Apology Resolution passed by US Congress in 1993 cited as a major impetus by the movement for Hawaiian sovereignty.[182]

GalleryEdit

Template:Gallery

Template:Gallery

See alsoEdit

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ReferencesEdit

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NotesEdit

Template:Notelist

BibliographyEdit

  • Bushnell, O. A. The Gifts of Civilization: Germs and Genocide in HawaiTemplate:Okinai. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1993.
  • Holmes, T. Michael. The Specter of Communism in HawaiTemplate:Okinai. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1994.
  • Russ Jr., William Adam. The Hawaiian Republic (1894–98) and Its Struggle to Win Annexation. Selinsgrove, PA: Susquehanna University Press, 1961.
  • Schamel, Wynell and Charles E. Schamel. "The 1897 Petition Against the Annexation of HawaiTemplate:Okinai." Social Education 63, 7 (November/December 1999): 402–08.
  • Stokes, John F.G. "Spaniard and the Sweet Potato in HawaiTemplate:Okinai and Hawaiian-American Contacts." American Anthropologist, New Series, vol. 34, no. 4 (1932) pp.Template:Nbsp594–600.

External linksEdit

Template:Sister project links

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