FANDOM


China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of over 1.381 billion.[1] The state is governed by the Communist Party of China and its capital is Beijing.Template:Sfnb It exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and Chongqing) and two mostly self-governing special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau), also claiming sovereignty over Taiwan. The country's major urban areas include Shanghai, Guangzhou, Beijing, Chongqing, Shenzhen, Tianjin and Hong Kong. China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower.[2][3]

Covering approximately Template:Convert, China is the world's second-largest state by land area[4] and either the third- or fourth-largest by total area, depending on the method of measurement.Template:Efn China's landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes and the Gobi and Taklamakan Deserts in the arid north to subtropical forests in the wetter south. The Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third- and sixth-longest in the world, respectively, run from the Tibetan Plateau to the densely populated eastern seaboard. China's coastline along the Pacific Ocean is Template:Convert long and is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East China and South China seas.

China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties, beginning with the Xia dynasty (Template:C. Template:Sc). Since 221 Template:Sc, when the Qin dynasty conquered the other largest six states to form the first unified Chinese empire, China has then expanded, fractured and re-unified numerous times in the following millennia. In 1912, the Republic of China (ROC) replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the communist People's Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War. The Communist Party established the People's Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, while the ROC government relocated to Taiwan with its present de facto temporary capital in Taipei. Both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory.

China had the largest economy in the world for much of the last two thousand years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China has become one of the world's fastest-growing major economies. Template:As of, it is the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). China is also the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods.[5] China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget.[6][7] The PRC is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council in 1971. China is also a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), the BCIM and the G-20. Template:TOC limit Template:Anchor

NamesEdit

Template:Main article Template:Infobox Chinese Template:Chinese text The English name "China" is first attested in Richard Eden's 1555 translationTemplate:Efn of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa.Template:Efn[8] The demonym, that is, the name for the people, and adjectival form "Chinese" developed later on the model of Portuguese Template:Lang and French Template:Lang.[9]Template:Efn Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn (Template:Lang), and perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit Cīna (Template:Lang).[10] Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata (5th century Template:Sc) and the Laws of Manu (2nd century Template:Sc).[11] The traditional theory, proposed in the 17th century by Martino Martini[12] and supported by many later scholars, is that the word "China" and its earlier related forms are ultimately derived from the state of Qin (Template:Lang, Old Chinese: *Dzin),[13] the westernmost of the Chinese states during the Zhou dynasty which unified China to form the Qin dynasty.[14] There are, however, other suggestions for the derivation of "China".[11]

The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China" (Template:Zh). The shorter form is "China" Template:Lang Template:Nowrap from Template:Lang ("central" or "middle") and Template:Lang ("state, nation-state"),[15]Template:Efn a term which developed under the Zhou Dynasty in reference to its royal demesne.Template:Efn It was then applied to the area around Luoyi (present-day Luoyang) during the Eastern Zhou and then to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing.[16] It was often used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia tribes from perceived "barbarians"[16] and was the source of the English name Template:Nowrap[17][18] A more literary or inclusive name, alluding to the "land of Chinese civilization", is Template:Lang Template:Nowrap[19] It developed during the Wei and Jin dynasties as a contraction of "the central state of the Huaxia".[16] During the 1950s and 1960s, after the defeat of the Kuomingtang in the Chinese Civil War, it was also referred to as "Communist China" or "Red China", to be differentiated from "Nationalist China" or "Free China".[20]

HistoryEdit

Template:Main article Template:History of China

PrehistoryEdit

Template:Main article Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago.[21] The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire,[22] were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; they have been dated to between 680,000 and 780,000 years ago.[23] The fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens (dated to 125,000–80,000 years ago) have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Dao County, Hunan.[24] Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 Template:Sc,[25] Damaidi around 6000 Template:Sc,[26] Dadiwan from 5800–5400 Template:Sc, and Banpo dating from the 5th millennium Template:Sc. Some scholars have suggested that the Jiahu symbols (7th millennium Template:Sc) constituted the earliest Chinese writing system.[25]

Early dynastic ruleEdit

Template:Further information

File:Yinxu.jpg

According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 Template:Sc.[27] The dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959.[28] It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period.[29] The succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records.[30] The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century Template:Sc.[31] Their oracle bone script (from Template:C. Template:Sc)[32][33] represents the oldest form of Chinese writing yet found,[34] and is a direct ancestor of modern Chinese characters.[35] The Shang were conquered by the Zhou, who ruled between the 11th and 5th centuries Template:Sc, though centralized authority was slowly eroded by feudal warlords. Many independent states eventually emerged from the weakened Zhou state and continually waged war with each other in the 300-year Spring and Autumn period, only occasionally deferring to the Zhou king. By the time of the Warring States period of the 5th–3rd centuries Template:Sc, there were seven powerful sovereign states in what is now China, each with its own king, ministry and army.

Imperial ChinaEdit

File:Chinesische-mauer.jpg
File:Terracotta pmorgan.jpg

The Warring States period ended in 221 Template:Sc after the state of Qin conquered the other six kingdoms and established the first unified Chinese state. Its King Zheng proclaimed himself the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty (Qín Shǐhuáng or Shǐ Huángdì). He enacted Qin's legalist reforms throughout China, notably the forced standardization of Chinese characters, measurements, road widths (i.e., cart axles' length), and currency. His dynasty also conquered the Yue tribes in Guangxi, Guangdong, and Vietnam.[36] The Qin dynasty lasted only fifteen years, falling soon after the First Emperor's death, as his harsh authoritarian policies led to widespread rebellion.[37][38]

Following a widespread civil war during which the imperial library at Xianyang was burned,Template:Efn the Han dynasty emerged to rule China between 206 Template:Sc and Template:Sc 220, creating a cultural identity among its populace still remembered in the ethnonym of the Han Chinese.[37][38] The Han expanded the empire's territory considerably, with military campaigns reaching Central Asia, Mongolia, South Korea, and Yunnan, and the recovery of Guangdong and northern Vietnam from Nanyue. Han involvement in Central Asia and Sogdia helped establish the land route of the Silk Road, replacing the earlier path over the Himalayas to India. Han China gradually became the largest economy of the ancient world.[39] Despite the Han's initial decentralization and the official abandonment of the Qin philosophy of Legalism in favor of Confucianism, Qin's legalist institutions and policies continued to be employed by the Han government and its successors.[40]

After the collapse of Han, a period of strife known as Three Kingdoms followed,[41] whose central figures were later immortalized in one of the Four Classics of Chinese literature. At its end, Wei was swiftly overthrown by the Jin dynasty. The Jin fell to civil war upon the ascension of a developmentally-disabled emperor; the Five Barbarians then invaded and ruled northern China as the Sixteen Kingdoms. The Xianbei unified them as the Northern Wei, whose Emperor Xiaowen reversed his predecessors' apartheid policies and enforced a drastic sinification on his subjects, largely integrating them into Chinese culture. In the south, the general Liu Yu secured the abdication of the Jin in favor of the Liu Song. The various successors of these states became known as the Northern and Southern dynasties, with the two areas finally reunited by the Sui in 581. The Sui restored the Han to power through China, reformed its agriculture and economy, constructed the Grand Canal, and patronized Buddhism. However, they fell quickly when their conscription for public works and a failed war with Korea provoked widespread unrest.[42][43]

File:Along the River During the Qingming Festival (detail of original).jpg

Under the succeeding Tang and Song dynasties, Chinese economy, technology, and culture entered a golden age.[44] The Tang Empire returned control of the Western Regions and the Silk Road,[45] and made the capital Chang'an a cosmopolitan urban center. However, it was devastated and weakened by the An Shi Rebellion in the 8th century.[46] In 907, the Tang disintegrated completely when the local military governors became ungovernable. The Song Dynasty ended the separatist situation in 960, leading to a balance of power between the Song and Khitan Liao. The Song was the first government in world history to issue paper money and the first Chinese polity to establish a permanent standing navy which was supported by the developed shipbuilding industry along with the sea trade.[47] Between the 10th and 11th centuries, the population of China doubled in size to around 100 million people, mostly because of the expansion of rice cultivation in central and southern China, and the production of abundant food surpluses. The Song dynasty also saw a revival of Confucianism, in response to the growth of Buddhism during the Tang,[48] and a flourishing of philosophy and the arts, as landscape art and porcelain were brought to new levels of maturity and complexity.[49][50] However, the military weakness of the Song army was observed by the Jurchen Jin dynasty. In 1127, Emperor Huizong of Song and the capital Bianjing were captured during the Jin–Song Wars. The remnants of the Song retreated to southern China.[51]

In the 13th century, China was gradually conquered by the Mongol Empire. In 1271, the Mongol leader Kublai Khan established the Yuan dynasty; the Yuan conquered the last remnant of the Song dynasty in 1279. Before the Mongol invasion, the population of Song China was 120 million citizens; this was reduced to 60 million by the time of the census in 1300.[52] A peasant named Zhu Yuanzhang overthrew the Yuan Dynasty in 1368 and founded the Ming dynasty. Under the Ming Dynasty, China enjoyed another golden age, developing one of the strongest navies in the world and a rich and prosperous economy amid a flourishing of art and culture. It was during this period that Zheng He led voyages throughout the world, reaching as far as Africa.[53] In the early years of the Ming Dynasty, China's capital was moved from Nanjing to Beijing. With the budding of capitalism, philosophers such as Wang Yangming further critiqued and expanded Neo-Confucianism with concepts of individualism and equality of four occupations.[54] The scholar-official stratum became a supporting force of industry and commerce in the tax boycott movements, which, together with the famines and the wars against Japanese invasions of Korea and Manchu invasions, led to an exhausted treasury.[55]

In 1644, Beijing was captured by a coalition of peasant rebel forces led by Li Zicheng. The last Ming Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide when the city fell. The Manchu Qing dynasty, then allied with Ming dynasty general Wu Sangui, overthrew Li's short-lived Shun dynasty and subsequently seized control of Beijing, which became the new capital of the Qing dynasty.

End of dynastic ruleEdit

File:Regaining the Provincial Capital of Ruizhou.jpg

The Qing dynasty, which lasted from 1644 until 1912, was the last imperial dynasty of China. Its conquest of the Ming (1618–1683) cost 25 million lives and the economy of China shrank drastically.[56] After the Southern Ming ended, the further conquest of the Dzungar Khanate added Mongolia, Tibet and Xinjiang to the empire.[57] The centralized autocracy was strengthened to crack down on anti-Qing sentiment with the policy of valuing agriculture and restraining commerce, the Haijin ("sea ban"), and ideological control as represented by the literary inquisition, causing social and technological stagnation.[58][59] In the mid-19th century, the dynasty experienced Western imperialism in the Opium Wars with Britain and France. China was forced to pay compensation, open treaty ports, allow extraterritoriality for foreign nationals, and cede Hong Kong to the British[60] under the 1842 Treaty of Nanking, the first of the Unequal Treaties. The First Sino-Japanese War (1894–95) resulted in Qing China's loss of influence in the Korean Peninsula, as well as the cession of Taiwan to Japan.[61]

File:EightNationsCrime02.jpg

The Qing dynasty also began experiencing internal unrest in which tens of millions of people died, especially in the failed Taiping Rebellion that ravaged southern China in the 1850s and 1860s and the Dungan Revolt (1862–77) in the northwest. The initial success of the Self-Strengthening Movement of the 1860s was frustrated by a series of military defeats in the 1880s and 1890s.

In the 19th century, the great Chinese diaspora began. Losses due to emigration were added to by conflicts and catastrophes such as the Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–79, in which between 9 and 13 million people died.[62] The Guangxu Emperor drafted a reform plan in 1898 to establish a modern constitutional monarchy, but these plans were thwarted by the Empress Dowager Cixi. The ill-fated anti-foreign Boxer Rebellion of 1899–1901 further weakened the dynasty. Although Cixi sponsored a program of reforms, the Xinhai Revolution of 1911–12 brought an end to the Qing dynasty and established the Republic of China.

Republic of China (1912–1949)Edit

Template:Main article Template:See also

File:Sun Yat-sen and Chiang Kai-shek.jpg
File:1945 Mao and Chiang.jpg

On 1 January 1912, the Republic of China was established, and Sun Yat-sen of the Kuomintang (the KMT or Nationalist Party) was proclaimed provisional president.[63] However, the presidency was later given to Yuan Shikai, a former Qing general who in 1915 proclaimed himself Emperor of China. In the face of popular condemnation and opposition from his own Beiyang Army, he was forced to abdicate and re-establish the republic.[64]

After Yuan Shikai's death in 1916, China was politically fragmented. Its Beijing-based government was internationally recognized but virtually powerless; regional warlords controlled most of its territory.[65][66] In the late 1920s, the Kuomintang, under Chiang Kai-shek, the then Principal of the Republic of China Military Academy, was able to reunify the country under its own control with a series of deft military and political manoeuvrings, known collectively as the Northern Expedition.[67][68] The Kuomintang moved the nation's capital to Nanjing and implemented "political tutelage", an intermediate stage of political development outlined in Sun Yat-sen's San-min program for transforming China into a modern democratic state.[69][70] The political division in China made it difficult for Chiang to battle the Communist, People's Liberation Army (PLA) against whom the Kuomintang had been warring since 1927 in the Chinese Civil War. This war continued successfully for the Kuomintang, especially after the PLA retreated in the Long March, until Japanese aggression and the 1936 Xi'an Incident forced Chiang to confront Imperial Japan.[71]

The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), a theater of World War II, forced an uneasy alliance between the Kuomintang and the PLA. Japanese forces committed numerous war atrocities against the civilian population; in all, as many as 20 million Chinese civilians died.[72] An estimated 200,000 Chinese were massacred in the city of Nanjing alone during the Japanese occupation.[73] During the war, China, along with the UK, the US and the Soviet Union, were referred to as "trusteeship of the powerful"[74] and were recognized as the Allied "Big Four" in the Declaration by United Nations.[75][76] Along with the other three great powers, China was one of the four major Allies of World War II, and was later considered one of the primary victors in the war.[77][78] After the surrender of Japan in 1945, Taiwan, including the Pescadores, was returned to Chinese control. China emerged victorious but war-ravaged and financially drained. The continued distrust between the Kuomintang and the Communists led to the resumption of civil war. Constitutional rule was established in 1947, but because of the ongoing unrest, many provisions of the ROC constitution were never implemented in mainland China.[79]

People's Republic of China (1949–present)Edit

Template:Main article Template:History of the People's Republic of China

File:Mao proclaiming the establishment of the PRC in 1949.jpg

Major combat in the Chinese Civil War ended in 1949 with the Communist Party in control of most of mainland China, and the Kuomintang retreating offshore, reducing the ROC's territory to only Taiwan, Hainan, and their surrounding islands. On 1 October 1949, Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of China.[80] In 1950, the People's Liberation Army succeeded in capturing Hainan from the ROC[81] and incorporating Tibet.[82] However, remaining Kuomintang forces continued to wage an insurgency in western China throughout the 1950s.[83]

The regime consolidated its popularity among the peasants through land reform, which saw between 1 and 2 million landlords executed.[84] Under its leadership, China developed an independent industrial system and its own nuclear weapons.[85] The Chinese population almost doubled from around 550 million to over 900 million.[86] However, the Great Leap Forward, a large-scale economic and social reform project, resulted in an estimated 45 million deaths between 1958 and 1961, mostly from starvation.[87] In 1966, Mao and his allies launched the Cultural Revolution, sparking a decade of political recrimination and social upheaval which lasted until Mao's death in 1976. In October 1971, the PRC replaced the Republic of China in the United Nations, and took its seat as a permanent member of the Security Council.[88]

After Mao's death, the Gang of Four was quickly arrested and held responsible for the excesses of the Cultural Revolution. Deng Xiaoping took power in 1978, and instituted significant economic reforms. The Communist Party loosened governmental control over citizens' personal lives, and the communes were gradually disbanded in favor of private land leases. This marked China's transition from a planned economy to a mixed economy with an increasingly open-market environment.[89] China adopted its current constitution on 4 December 1982. In 1989, the violent suppression of student protests in Tiananmen Square brought condemnation and sanctions against the Chinese government from various countries.[90]

Jiang Zemin, Li Peng and Zhu Rongji led the nation in the 1990s. Under their administration, China's economic performance pulled an estimated 150 million peasants out of poverty and sustained an average annual gross domestic product growth rate of 11.2%.[91][92] The country formally joined the World Trade Organization in 2001, and maintained its high rate of economic growth under Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao's leadership in the 2000s. However, rapid growth also severely impacted the country's resources and environment,[93][94] and caused major social displacement.[95][96] Living standards continued to improve rapidly despite the late-2000s recession, but centralized political control remained tight.[97]

Preparations for a decadal Communist Party leadership change in 2012 were marked by factional disputes and political scandals.[98] During China's 18th National Communist Party Congress in November 2012, Hu Jintao was replaced as General Secretary of the Communist Party by Xi Jinping.[99][100] Under Xi, the Chinese government began large-scale efforts to reform its economy,[101][102] which has suffered from structural instabilities and slowing growth.[103][104][105][106] The Xi–Li Administration also announced major reforms to the one-child policy and prison system.[107]

GeographyEdit

Template:Main article Template:Multiple image

File:China koppen.svg

Political geographyEdit

Template:Main article The People's Republic of China is the second-largest country in the world by land area[108] after Russia, and is either the third- or fourth-largest by total area, after Russia, Canada and, depending on the definition of total area, the United States.Template:Efn China's total area is generally stated as being approximately Template:Convert.[109] Specific area figures range from Template:Convert according to the Encyclopædia Britannica,[110] Template:Convert according to the UN Demographic Yearbook,[111] to Template:Convert according to the CIA World Factbook.[112]

China has the longest combined land border in the world, measuring Template:Convert from the mouth of the Yalu River to the Gulf of Tonkin.[112] China borders 14 nations, more than any other country except Russia, which also borders 14.[113] China extends across much of East Asia, bordering Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar (Burma) in Southeast Asia; India, Bhutan, Nepal, Afghanistan, and PakistanTemplate:Efn in South Asia; Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan in Central Asia; and Russia, Mongolia, and North Korea in Inner Asia and Northeast Asia. Additionally, China shares maritime boundaries with South Korea, Japan, Vietnam, and the Philippines.

Landscape and climateEdit

Template:Multiple image

The territory of China lies between latitudes 18° and 54° N, and longitudes 73° and 135° E. China's landscapes vary significantly across its vast width. In the east, along the shores of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, there are extensive and densely populated alluvial plains, while on the edges of the Inner Mongolian plateau in the north, broad grasslands predominate. Southern China is dominated by hills and low mountain ranges, while the central-east hosts the deltas of China's two major rivers, the Yellow River and the Yangtze River. Other major rivers include the Xi, Mekong, Brahmaputra and Amur. To the west sit major mountain ranges, most notably the Himalayas. High plateaus feature among the more arid landscapes of the north, such as the Taklamakan and the Gobi Desert. The world's highest point, Mount Everest (8,848m), lies on the Sino-Nepalese border.[114] The country's lowest point, and the world's third-lowest, is the dried lake bed of Ayding Lake (−154m) in the Turpan Depression.[115]

China's climate is mainly dominated by dry seasons and wet monsoons, which lead to pronounced temperature differences between winter and summer. In the winter, northern winds coming from high-latitude areas are cold and dry; in summer, southern winds from coastal areas at lower latitudes are warm and moist.[116] The climate in China differs from region to region because of the country's highly complex topography.

A major environmental issue in China is the continued expansion of its deserts, particularly the Gobi Desert.[117][118] Although barrier tree lines planted since the 1970s have reduced the frequency of sandstorms, prolonged drought and poor agricultural practices have resulted in dust storms plaguing northern China each spring, which then spread to other parts of east Asia, including Korea and Japan. China's environmental watchdog, SEPA, stated in 2007 that China is losing a million acres (4,000 km²) per year to desertification.[119] Water quality, erosion, and pollution control have become important issues in China's relations with other countries. Melting glaciers in the Himalayas could potentially lead to water shortages for hundreds of millions of people.[120]

BiodiversityEdit

Template:Main article

File:Giant Panda Eating.jpg

China is one of 17 megadiverse countries,[121] lying in two of the world's major ecozones: the Palearctic and the Indomalaya. By one measure, China has over 34,687 species of animals and vascular plants, making it the third-most biodiverse country in the world, after Brazil and Colombia.[122] The country signed the Rio de Janeiro Convention on Biological Diversity on 11 June 1992, and became a party to the convention on 5 January 1993.[123] It later produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, with one revision that was received by the convention on 21 September 2010.[124]

China is home to at least 551 species of mammals (the third-highest such number in the world),[125] 1,221 species of birds (eighth),[126] 424 species of reptiles (seventh)[127] and 333 species of amphibians (seventh).[128] China is the most biodiverse country in each category outside the tropics. Wildlife in China share habitat with and bear acute pressure from the world's largest population of homo sapiens. At least 840 animal species are threatened, vulnerable or in danger of local extinction in China, due mainly to human activity such as habitat destruction, pollution and poaching for food, fur and ingredients for traditional Chinese medicine.[129] Endangered wildlife is protected by law, and Template:As of, the country has over 2,349 nature reserves, covering a total area of 149.95 million hectares, 15 percent of China's total land area.[130]

China has over 32,000 species of vascular plants,[131] and is home to a variety of forest types. Cold coniferous forests predominate in the north of the country, supporting animal species such as moose and Asian black bear, along with over 120 bird species.[132] The understorey of moist conifer forests may contain thickets of bamboo. In higher montane stands of juniper and yew, the bamboo is replaced by rhododendrons. Subtropical forests, which are predominate in central and southern China, support as many as 146,000 species of flora.[132] Tropical and seasonal rainforests, though confined to Yunnan and Hainan Island, contain a quarter of all the animal and plant species found in China.[132] China has over 10,000 recorded species of fungi,[133] and of them, nearly 6,000 are higher fungi.[134]

Environmental issuesEdit

Template:Main article Template:See also

File:Wind power plants in Xinjiang, China.jpg

In recent decades, China has suffered from severe environmental deterioration and pollution.[135][136] While regulations such as the 1979 Environmental Protection Law are fairly stringent, they are poorly enforced, as they are frequently disregarded by local communities and government officials in favor of rapid economic development.[137] Urban air pollution is a severe health issue in the country; the World Bank estimated in 2013 that 16 of the world's 20 most-polluted cities are located in China.[138] China is the world's largest carbon dioxide emitter.[139] The country also has significant water pollution problems: 40% of China's rivers had been polluted by industrial and agricultural waste by late 2011.[140] In 2014, the internal freshwater resources per capita of China reduced to 2,062m3, and it was below 500m3 in the North China Plain, while 5,920m3 in the world.[141][142][143]

However, China is the world's leading investor in renewable energy commercialization, with $52 billion invested in 2011 alone;[144][145][146] it is a major manufacturer of renewable energy technologies and invests heavily in local-scale renewable energy projects.[147][148] By 2009, over 17% of China's energy was derived from renewable sources – most notably hydroelectric power plants, of which China has a total installed capacity of 197 GW.[149] In 2011, the Chinese government announced plans to invest four trillion yuan (US$619 billion) in water infrastructure and desalination projects over a ten-year period, and to complete construction of a flood prevention and anti-drought system by 2020.[142][150] In 2013, China began a five-year, US$277 billion effort to reduce air pollution, particularly in the north of the country.[151]

PoliticsEdit

Template:Main articleTemplate:See also

File:ForbiddenCity MaoZedongPortrait (pixinn.net).jpg

China's constitution states that The People's Republic of China "is a socialist state under the people's democratic dictatorship led by the working class and based on the alliance of workers and peasants," and that the state organs "apply the principle of democratic centralism."[152] The PRC is one of the world's few remaining socialist states openly endorsing communism (see Ideology of the Communist Party of China). The Chinese government has been variously described as communist and socialist, but also as authoritarian and corporatist,[153] with heavy restrictions in many areas, most notably against free access to the Internet, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, the right to have children, free formation of social organizations and freedom of religion.[154] Its current political, ideological and economic system has been termed by its leaders as the "people's democratic dictatorship", "socialism with Chinese characteristics" (which is Marxism adapted to Chinese circumstances) and the "socialist market economy" respectively.[155]

Communist PartyEdit

China's constitution declares that the country is ruled "under the leadership" of the Communist Party of China (CPC).[156] The electoral system is pyramidal. Local People's Congresses are directly elected, and higher levels of People's Congresses up to the National People's Congress (NPC) are indirectly elected by the People's Congress of the level immediately below.[157] The political system is decentralized, and provincial and sub-provincial leaders have a significant amount of autonomy.[158] Other political parties, referred to as democratic parties, have representatives in the National People's Congress and the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC).[159] China supports the Leninist principle of "democratic centralism",[160] but critics describe the elected National People's Congress as a "rubber stamp" body.[161]

GovernmentEdit

Template:Main article

File:Great Hall Of The People At Night.JPG
File:HammerSickle Tiananmen.jpg

The President of China is the titular head of state, serving as the ceremonial figurehead under National People's Congress. The Premier of China is the head of government, presiding over the State Council composed of four vice premiers and the heads of ministries and commissions. The incumbent president is Xi Jinping, who is also the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China and the Chairman of the Central Military Commission, making him China's paramount leader.[99] The incumbent premier is Li Keqiang, who is also a senior member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee, China's de facto top decision-making body.[162]

There have been some moves toward political liberalization, in that open contested elections are now held at the village and town levels.[163][164] However, the Party retains effective control over government appointments: in the absence of meaningful opposition, the CPC wins by default most of the time. Political concerns in China include the growing gap between rich and poor and government corruption.[165][166] Nonetheless, the level of public support for the government and its management of the nation is high, with 80–95% of Chinese citizens expressing satisfaction with the central government, according to a 2011 survey.[167]

Administrative divisionsEdit

Template:Main article The People's Republic of China is divided into 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, each with a designated minority group; four municipalities; and two Special Administrative Regions (SARs) which enjoy a degree of political autonomy. These 31 provincial-level divisions can be collectively referred to as "mainland China", a term which usually excludes two SARs of Hong Kong and Macau. Geographically, all 31 provincial divisions can be grouped into six regions, including North China, Northeast China, East China, South Central China, Southwest China and Northwest China.

China considers Taiwan to be its 23rd province, although Taiwan is governed by the Republic of China, which disputes the PRC's claim.[168] None of the divisions are recognized by the ROC government, which claims the entirety of the PRC's territory.

Template:PRC provinces big imagemap alt Template:PRC provinces small imagemap/province list

Foreign relationsEdit

Template:Main article

File:BRICS heads of state and government hold hands ahead of the 2014 G-20 summit in Brisbane, Australia.jpeg

The PRC has diplomatic relations with 174 countries and maintains embassies in 162. Its legitimacy is disputed by the Republic of China and a few other countries; it is thus the largest and most populous state with limited recognition. In 1971, the PRC replaced the Republic of China as the sole representative of China in the United Nations and as one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.[169] China was also a former member and leader of the Non-Aligned Movement, and still considers itself an advocate for developing countries.[170] Along with Brazil, Russia, India and South Africa, China is a member of the BRICS group of emerging major economies and hosted the group's third official summit at Sanya, Hainan in April 2011.[171]

Under its interpretation of the One-China policy, Beijing has made it a precondition to establishing diplomatic relations that the other country acknowledges its claim to Taiwan and severs official ties with the government of the Republic of China. Chinese officials have protested on numerous occasions when foreign countries have made diplomatic overtures to Taiwan,[172] especially in the matter of armament sales.[173]

Much of current Chinese foreign policy is reportedly based on Premier Zhou Enlai's Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, and is also driven by the concept of "harmony without uniformity", which encourages diplomatic relations between states despite ideological differences.[174] This policy may have led China to support states that are regarded as dangerous or repressive by Western nations, such as Zimbabwe, North Korea and Iran.[175] China has a close economic and military relationship with Russia,[176] and the two states often vote in unison in the UN Security Council.[177][178][179]

File:Clinton and Biden meet Xi Jinping.jpg

Trade relationsEdit

In recent decades, China has played an increasing role in calling for free trade areas and security pacts amongst its Asia-Pacific neighbours. China became a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) on 11 December 2001. In 2004, it proposed an entirely new East Asia Summit (EAS) framework as a forum for regional security issues.[180] The EAS, which includes ASEAN Plus Three, India, Australia and New Zealand, held its inaugural summit in 2005. China is also a founding member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), along with Russia and the Central Asian republics.

In 2000, the United States Congress approved "permanent normal trade relations" (PNTR) with China, allowing Chinese exports in at the same low tariffs as goods from most other countries.[181] China has a significant trade surplus with the United States, its most important export market.[182] In the early 2010s, US politicians argued that the Chinese yuan was significantly undervalued, giving China an unfair trade advantage.[183][184][185] In recent decades, China has followed a policy of engaging with African nations for trade and bilateral co-operation;[186][187][188] in 2012, Sino-African trade totalled over US$160 billion.[189] China has furthermore strengthened its ties with major South American economies, becoming the largest trading partner of Brazil and building strategic links with Argentina.[190][191]

Territorial disputesEdit

Template:Main article Template:See also Template:Simple Horizontal timeline

File:China administrative.png

Ever since its establishment after the second Chinese Civil War, the PRC has claimed the territories governed by the Republic of China (ROC), a separate political entity today commonly known as Taiwan, as a part of its territory. It regards the island of Taiwan as its Taiwan Province, Kinmen and Matsu as a part of Fujian Province and islands the ROC controls in the South China Sea as a part of Hainan Province and Guangdong Province. These claims are controversial because of the complicated Cross-Strait relations, with the PRC treating the One-China policy as one of its most important diplomatic principles.[192]

In addition to Taiwan, China is also involved in other international territorial disputes. Since the 1990s, China has been involved in negotiations to resolve its disputed land borders, including a disputed border with India and an undefined border with Bhutan. China is additionally involved in multilateral disputes over the ownership of several small islands in the East and South China Seas, such as the Senkaku Islands and the Scarborough Shoal.[193][194] On 21 May 2014 Xi Jinping, speaking at a conference in Shanghai, pledged to settle China's territorial disputes peacefully. "China stays committed to seeking peaceful settlement of disputes with other countries over territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests", he said.[195]

Emerging superpower statusEdit

China is regularly hailed as a potential new superpower, with certain commentators citing its rapid economic progress, growing military might, very large population, and increasing international influence as signs that it will play a prominent global role in the 21st century.[3][196] Others, however, warn that economic bubbles and demographic imbalances could slow or even halt China's growth as the century progresses.[197][198] Some authors also question the definition of "superpower", arguing that China's large economy alone would not qualify it as a superpower, and noting that it lacks the military power and cultural influence of the United States.[199]

Sociopolitical issues, human rights and reformEdit

Template:See also

The Chinese democracy movement, social activists, and some members of the Communist Party of China have all identified the need for social and political reform. While economic and social controls have been significantly relaxed in China since the 1970s, political freedom is still tightly restricted. The Constitution of the People's Republic of China states that the "fundamental rights" of citizens include freedom of speech, freedom of the press, the right to a fair trial, freedom of religion, universal suffrage, and property rights. However, in practice, these provisions do not afford significant protection against criminal prosecution by the state.[200][201] Although some criticisms of government policies and the ruling Communist Party are tolerated, censorship of political speech and information, most notably on the Internet,[202][203] are routinely used to prevent collective action.[204] In 2005, Reporters Without Borders ranked China 159th out of 167 states in its Annual World Press Freedom Index, indicating a very low level of press freedom.[205] In 2014, China ranked 175th out of 180 countries.[206]

Rural migrants to China's cities often find themselves treated as second-class citizens by the hukou household registration system, which controls access to state benefits.[207][208] Property rights are often poorly protected,[207] and taxation disproportionately affects poorer citizens.[208] However, a number of rural taxes have been reduced or abolished since the early 2000s, and additional social services provided to rural dwellers.[209][210]

File:On the 20th anniversary of 8964 (1).jpg

A number of foreign governments, foreign press agencies and NGOs also routinely criticize China's human rights record, alleging widespread civil rights violations such as detention without trial, forced abortions,[211] forced confessions, torture, restrictions of fundamental rights,[154][212] and excessive use of the death penalty.[213][214] The government has suppressed popular protests and demonstrations that it considers a potential threat to "social stability", as was the case with the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.

Falun Gong was first taught publicly in 1992. In 1999, when there were 70 million practitioners,[215] the persecution of Falun Gong began, resulting in mass arrests, extralegal detention, and reports of torture and deaths in custody.[216][217] The Chinese state is regularly accused of large-scale repression and human rights abuses in Tibet and Xinjiang, including violent police crackdowns and religious suppression.[218][219]

The Chinese government has responded to foreign criticism by arguing that the right to subsistence and economic development is a prerequisite to other types of human rights, and that the notion of human rights should take into account a country's present level of economic development.[220] It emphasizes the rise in the Chinese standard of living, literacy rate and average life expectancy since the 1970s, as well as improvements in workplace safety and efforts to combat natural disasters such as the perennial Yangtze River floods.[220][221][222] Furthermore, some Chinese politicians have spoken out in support of democratization, although others remain more conservative.[223] Some major reform efforts have been conducted; for an instance in November 2013, the government announced plans to relax the one-child policy and abolish the much-criticized re-education through labour program,[107] though human rights groups note that reforms to the latter have been largely cosmetic.[216] During the 2000s and early 2010s, the Chinese government was increasingly tolerant of NGOs that offer practical, efficient solutions to social problems, but such "third sector" activity remained heavily regulated.[224][225]

MilitaryEdit

Template:Main article

File:J-10a zhas.png
File:Luyang II (Type 052C) Class Destroyer.JPG

With 2.3 million active troops, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the largest standing military force in the world, commanded by the Central Military Commission (CMC).[226] The PLA consists of the Ground Force (PLAGF), the Navy (PLAN), the Air Force (PLAAF), and the People's Liberation Army Rocket Force (PLARF). According to the Chinese government, China's military budget for 2014 totalled US$132 billion, constituting the world's second-largest military budget.[7] However, many authorities – including SIPRI and the U.S. Office of the Secretary of Defense – argue that China does not report its real level of military spending, which is allegedly much higher than the official budget.[7][227]

As a recognized nuclear weapons state, China is considered both a major regional military power and a potential military superpower.[228] According to a 2013 report by the US Department of Defense, China fields between 50 and 75 nuclear ICBMs, along with a number of SRBMs.[6] However, compared with the other four UN Security Council Permanent Members, China has relatively limited power projection capabilities.[229] To offset this, it has developed numerous power projection assets since the early 2000s – its first aircraft carrier entered service in 2012,[230][231][232] and it maintains a substantial fleet of submarines, including several nuclear-powered attack and ballistic missile submarines.[233] China has furthermore established a network of foreign military relationships along critical sea lanes.[234]

China has made significant progress in modernising its air force in recent decades, purchasing Russian fighter jets such as the Sukhoi Su-30, and also manufacturing its own modern fighters, most notably the Chengdu J-10, J-20 and the Shenyang J-11, J-15, J-16, and J-31.[230][235] China is furthermore engaged in developing an indigenous stealth aircraft and numerous combat drones.[236][237][238] Air and Sea denial weaponry advances have increased the regional threat from the perspective of Japan as well as Washington.[239][240] China has also updated its ground forces, replacing its ageing Soviet-derived tank inventory with numerous variants of the modern Type 99 tank, and upgrading its battlefield C3I and C4I systems to enhance its network-centric warfare capabilities.[241] In addition, China has developed or acquired numerous advanced missile systems,[242][243] including anti-satellite missiles,[244] cruise missiles[245] and submarine-launched nuclear ICBMs.[246] According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute's data, China became the world's third largest exporter of major arms in 2010–14, an increase of 143 per cent from the period 2005–09.[247] Template:Clear

EconomyEdit

Template:Main article

File:Graph of Major Developing Economies by Real GDP per capita at PPP 1990-2013.png
File:Shanghaistockexchange.jpg

China had the largest economy in the world for most of the past two thousand years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline.[250][251] Template:As of, China has the world's second-largest economy in terms of nominal GDP, totalling approximately US$10.380 trillion according to the International Monetary Fund.[252] If purchasing power parity (PPP) is taken into account, China's economy is the largest in the world, with a 2014 PPP GDP of US$17.617 trillion.[252] In 2013, its PPP GDP per capita was US$12,880, while its nominal GDP per capita was US$7,589. Both cases put China behind around eighty countries (out of 183 countries on the IMF list) in global GDP per capita rankings.[253]

Economic history and growthEdit

Template:Main article From its founding in 1949 until late 1978, the People's Republic of China was a Soviet-style centrally planned economy. Following Mao's death in 1976 and the consequent end of the Cultural Revolution, Deng Xiaoping and the new Chinese leadership began to reform the economy and move towards a more market-oriented mixed economy under one-party rule. Agricultural collectivization was dismantled and farmlands privatized, while foreign trade became a major new focus, leading to the creation of Special Economic Zones (SEZs). Inefficient state-owned enterprises (SOEs) were restructured and unprofitable ones were closed outright, resulting in massive job losses. Modern-day China is mainly characterized as having a market economy based on private property ownership,[254] and is one of the leading examples of state capitalism.[255][256] The state still dominates in strategic "pillar" sectors such as energy production and heavy industries, but private enterprise has expanded enormously, with around 30 million private businesses recorded in 2008.[257][258][259][260]

File:Shanghai - Nanjing Road.jpeg

Since economic liberalization began in 1978, China has been among the world's fastest-growing economies,[261] relying largely on investment- and export-led growth.[262] According to the IMF, China's annual average GDP growth between 2001 and 2010 was 10.5%. Between 2007 and 2011, China's economic growth rate was equivalent to all of the G7 countries' growth combined.[263] According to the Global Growth Generators index announced by Citigroup in February 2011, China has a very high 3G growth rating.[264] Its high productivity, low labor costs and relatively good infrastructure have made it a global leader in manufacturing. However, the Chinese economy is highly energy-intensive and inefficient;[265] China became the world's largest energy consumer in 2010,[266] relies on coal to supply over 70% of its energy needs, and surpassed the US to become the world's largest oil importer in September 2013.[267][268] In the early 2010s, China's economic growth rate began to slow amid domestic credit troubles, weakening international demand for Chinese exports and fragility in the global economy.[269][270][271]

In the online realm, China's e-commerce industry has grown more slowly than the EU and the US, with a significant period of development occurring from around 2009 onwards. According to Credit Suisse, the total value of online transactions in China grew from an insignificant size in 2008 to around RMB 4 trillion (US$660 billion) in 2012. The Chinese online payment market is dominated by major firms such as Alipay, Tenpay and China UnionPay.[272]

China in the global economyEdit

China is a member of the WTO and is the world's largest trading power, with a total international trade value of US$3.87 trillion in 2012.[5] Its foreign exchange reserves reached US$2.85 trillion by the end of 2010, an increase of 18.7% over the previous year, making its reserves by far the world's largest.[273][274] In 2012, China was the world's largest recipient of inward foreign direct investment (FDI), attracting $253 billion.[275] In 2014, China's foreign exchange remittances were $US64 billion making it the second largest recipient of remittances in the world.[276] China also invests abroad, with a total outward FDI of $62.4 billion in 2012,[275] and a number of major takeovers of foreign firms by Chinese companies.[277] In 2009, China owned an estimated $1.6 trillion of US securities,[278] and was also the largest foreign holder of US public debt, owning over $1.16 trillion in US Treasury bonds.[279][280] China's undervalued exchange rate has caused friction with other major economies,[184][281][282] and it has also been widely criticized for manufacturing large quantities of counterfeit goods.[283][284] According to consulting firm McKinsey, total outstanding debt in China increased from $7.4 trillion in 2007 to $28.2 trillion in 2014, which reflects 228% of China's GDP, a percentage higher than that of some G20 nations.[285]

Graph comparing the 2014 nominal GDPs
of major economies in US$ billions (IMF)[286]

China ranked 29th in the Global Competitiveness Index in 2009,[287] although it is only ranked 136th among the 179 countries measured in the 2011 Index of Economic Freedom.[288] In 2014, Fortune's Global 500 list of the world's largest corporations included 95 Chinese companies, with combined revenues of US$5.8 trillion.[289] The same year, Forbes reported that five of the world's ten largest public companies were Chinese, including the world's largest bank by total assets, the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China.[290]

Class and income equalityEdit

Template:See also China's middle-class population (if defined as those with annual income of between US$10,000 and US$60,000) had reached more than 300 million by 2012.[291] According to the Hurun Report, the number of US dollar billionaires in China increased from 130 in 2009 to 251 in 2012, giving China the world's second-highest number of billionaires.[292][293] China's domestic retail market was worth over 20 trillion yuan (US$3.2 trillion) in 2012[294] and is growing at over 12% annually Template:As of,[295] while the country's luxury goods market has expanded immensely, with 27.5% of the global share.[296] However, in recent years, China's rapid economic growth has contributed to severe consumer inflation,[297][298] leading to increased government regulation.[299] China has a high level of economic inequality,[300] which has increased in the past few decades.[301] In 2012, China's official Gini coefficient was 0.474.[302] A study conducted by Southwestern University of Finance and Economics showed that China’s Gini coefficient actually had reached 0.61 in 2012, and top 1% Chinese held more than 25% of China’s wealth.[303]

Internationalization of the renminbiEdit

Template:Main article

Since 2008 global financial crisis, China realized the dependency of US Dollar and the weakness of the international monetary system.[304] The RMB Internationalization accelerated in 2009 when China established dim sum bond market and expanded the Cross-Border Trade RMB Settlement Pilot Project, which helps establish pools of offshore RMB liquidity.[305][306] In November 2010, Russia began using the Chinese renminbi in its bilateral trade with China.[307] This was soon followed by Japan,[308] Australia,[309] Singapore,[310] the United Kingdom,[311] and Canada.[312] As a result of the rapid internationalization of the renminbi, it became the eighth-most-traded currency in the world in 2013.[313]

Science and technologyEdit

Template:Main article Template:History of science and technology in China

HistoricalEdit

China was a world leader in science and technology until the Ming Dynasty. Ancient Chinese discoveries and inventions, such as papermaking, printing, the compass, and gunpowder (the Four Great Inventions), later became widespread in Asia and Europe. Chinese mathematicians were the first to use negative numbers.[314][315] However, by the 17th century, the Western world had surpassed China in scientific and technological development.[316] The causes of this Great Divergence continue to be debated.[317]

After repeated military defeats by Western nations in the 19th century, Chinese reformers began promoting modern science and technology as part of the Self-Strengthening Movement. After the Communists came to power in 1949, efforts were made to organize science and technology based on the model of the Soviet Union, in which scientific research was part of central planning.[318] After Mao's death in 1976, science and technology was established as one of the Four Modernizations,[319] and the Soviet-inspired academic system was gradually reformed.[320]

Modern eraEdit

Since the end of the Cultural Revolution, China has made significant investments in scientific research,[321] with $163 billion spent on scientific research and development in 2012.[322] Science and technology are seen as vital for achieving China's economic and political goals, and are held as a source of national pride to a degree sometimes described as "techno-nationalism".[323] Nonetheless, China's investment in basic and applied scientific research remains behind that of leading technological powers such as the United States and Japan.[321][322] Chinese-born scientists have won the Nobel Prize in Physics four times, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry and Physiology or Medicine once respectively, though most of these scientists conducted their Nobel-winning research in western nations.Template:Efn

File:The Launch of Long March 3B Rocket.jpg

China is developing its education system with an emphasis on science, mathematics and engineering; in 2009, China graduated over 10,000 Ph.D. engineers, and as many as 500,000 BSc graduates, more than any other country.[324] China is also the world's second-largest publisher of scientific papers, producing 121,500 in 2010 alone, including 5,200 in leading international scientific journals.[325] Chinese technology companies such as Huawei and Lenovo have become world leaders in telecommunications and personal computing,[326][327][328] and Chinese supercomputers are consistently ranked among the world's most powerful.[329][330] China is also expanding its use of industrial robots; from 2008 to 2011, the installation of multi-role robots in Chinese factories rose by 136 percent.[331]

The Chinese space program is one of the world's most active, and is a major source of national pride.[332][333] In 1970, China launched its first satellite, Dong Fang Hong I, becoming the fifth country to do so independently.[334] In 2003, China became the third country to independently send humans into space, with Yang Liwei's spaceflight aboard Shenzhou 5; Template:As of, ten Chinese nationals have journeyed into space, including two women. In 2011, China's first space station module, Tiangong-1, was launched, marking the first step in a project to assemble a large manned station by the early 2020s.[335] In 2013, China successfully landed the Chang'e 3 probe and Yutu rover onto the Moon; China plans to collect lunar soil samples by 2017.[336]

InfrastructureEdit

TelecommunicationsEdit

Template:Main article China currently has the largest number of active cellphones of any country in the world, with over 1 billion users by February 2012.[337] It also has the world's largest number of internet and broadband users,[338] with over 688 million internet users Template:As of, equivalent to around half of its population.[339] The national average broadband connection speed is 9.46 MB/s, ranking China 91st in the world in terms of internet speed.[339] As of July 2013, China accounts for 24% of the world's internet-connected devices.[340] Since 2011 China is the nation with the most installed telecommunication bandwidth in the world. By 2014, China hosts more than twice as much national bandwidth potential than the U.S., the historical leader in terms of installed telecommunication bandwidth (China: 29% versus US:13% of the global total).[341]

China Telecom and China Unicom, the world's two largest broadband providers, accounted for 20% of global broadband subscribers. China Telecom alone serves more than 50 million broadband subscribers, while China Unicom serves more than 40 million.[342] Several Chinese telecommunications companies, most notably Huawei and ZTE, have been accused of spying for the Chinese military.[343]

China is developing its own satellite navigation system, dubbed Beidou, which began offering commercial navigation services across Asia in 2012,[344] and is planned to offer global coverage by 2020.[345]

TransportEdit

File:Balinghe Bridge-1.jpg

Template:Main article Since the late 1990s, China's national road network has been significantly expanded through the creation of a network of national highways and expressways. In 2011 China's highways had reached a total length of Template:Convert, making it the longest highway system in the world.[346] In 1991, there were only six bridges across the main stretch of the Yangtze River, which bisects the country into northern and southern halves. By October 2014, there were 81 such bridges and tunnels.

China has the world's largest market for automobiles, having surpassed the United States in both auto sales and production. Auto sales in 2009 exceeded 13.6 million[347] and may reach 40 million by 2020.[348] A side-effect of the rapid growth of China's road network has been a significant rise in traffic accidents,[349] with poorly enforced traffic laws cited as a possible cause—in 2011 alone, around 62,000 Chinese died in road accidents.[350] In urban areas, bicycles remain a common mode of transport, despite the increasing prevalence of automobiles – Template:As of, there are approximately 470 million bicycles in China.[351]

File:PEKT3E.jpg

China's railways, which are state-owned, are among the busiest in the world, handling a quarter of the world's rail traffic volume on only 6 percent of the world's tracks in 2006.[352][353] Template:As of, the country had Template:Convert of railways, the third longest network in the world.[354] All provinces and regions are connected to the rail network except Macau. The railways strain to meet enormous demand particularly during the Chinese New Year holiday, when the world's largest annual human migration takes place.[353] In 2013, Chinese railways delivered 2.106 billion passenger trips, generating 1,059.56 billion passenger-kilometers and carried 3.967 billion tons of freight, generating 2,917.4 billion cargo tons-kilometers.[354]

China's high-speed rail (HSR) system started construction in the early 2000s. Today it has over Template:Convert of dedicated lines alone, a length that exceeds rest of the world's high-speed rail tracks combined,[355] making it the longest HSR network in the world.[356] With an annual ridership of over 1.1 billion passengers in 2015 it is the world's busiest.[357] The network includes the Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen High-Speed Railway, the single longest HSR line in the world, and the Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway, which has three of longest railroad bridges in the world.[358] The HSR track network is set to reach approximately Template:Convert by 2020.[359] The Shanghai Maglev Train, which reaches Template:Convert, is the fastest commercial train service in the world.[360]

File:A maglev train coming out, Pudong International Airport, Shanghai.jpg

Since 2000, the growth of rapid transit systems in Chinese cities has accelerated. As of January 2016, 26 Chinese cities have urban mass transit systems in operation and 39 more have metro systems approved[361] with a dozen more to join them by 2020.[362] The Shanghai Metro, Beijing Subway, Guangzhou Metro, Hong Kong MTR and Shenzhen Metro are among the longest and busiest in the world.

File:CRH380Afromshanghai.jpg

There were 182 commercial airports in China in 2012. With 82 new airports planned to open by 2015, more than two-thirds of the airports under construction worldwide in 2013 were in China,[363] and Boeing expects that China's fleet of active commercial aircraft in China will grow from 1,910 in 2011 to 5,980 in 2031.[363] With rapid expansion in civil aviation, the largest airports in China have also joined the ranks of the busiest in the world. In 2013, Beijing's Capital Airport ranked second in the world by passenger traffic (it was 26th in 2002). Since 2010, the Hong Kong International Airport and Shanghai Pudong International Airport have ranked first and third in air cargo tonnage.

Some 80% of China's airspace remains restricted for military use, and Chinese airlines made up eight of the 10 worst-performing Asian airlines in terms of delays.[364] China has over 2,000 river and seaports, about 130 of which are open to foreign shipping. In 2012, the Ports of Shanghai, Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Ningbo-Zhoushan, Guangzhou, Qingdao, Tianjin, Dalian ranked in the top in the world in container traffic and cargo tonnage.[365] Template:Panorama

Water supply and sanitationEdit

Template:Main article

Water supply and sanitation infrastructure in China is facing challenges such as rapid urbanization, as well as water scarcity, contamination, and pollution.[366] According to data presented by the Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation of WHO and UNICEF in 2015, about 36% of the rural population in China still did not have access to improved sanitation.[367] In June 2010, there were 1,519 sewage treatment plants in China and 18 plants were added each week.[368] The ongoing South–North Water Transfer Project intends to abate water shortage in the north.[369]

DemographicsEdit

Template:Main article

File:PRC Population Density.svg

The national census of 2010 recorded the population of the People's Republic of China as approximately 1,370,536,875. About 16.60% of the population were 14 years old or younger, 70.14% were between 15 and 59 years old, and 13.26% were over 60 years old.[370] The population growth rate for 2013 is estimated to be 0.46%.[371]

Although a middle-income country by Western standards, China's rapid growth has pulled hundreds of millions of its people out of poverty since 1978. Today, about 10% of the Chinese population lives below the poverty line of US$1 per day, down from 64% in 1978. In 2014, the urban unemployment rate of China was about 4.1%.[372][373]

With a population of over 1.3 billion and dwindling natural resources, the government of China is very concerned about its population growth rate and has attempted since 1979, with mixed results,[374] to implement a strict family planning policy, known as the "one-child policy." Before 2013, this policy sought to restrict families to one child each, with exceptions for ethnic minorities and a degree of flexibility in rural areas. A major loosening of the policy was enacted in December 2013, allowing families to have two children if one parent is an only child.[375] In 2016, the one-child policy was replaced in favor of a two-child policy.[376] Data from the 2010 census implies that the total fertility rate may be around 1.4.[377]

File:Population and Natural Increase Rate of PRC.jpg

The policy, along with traditional preference for boys, may be contributing to an imbalance in the sex ratio at birth.[378][379] According to the 2010 census, the sex ratio at birth was 118.06 boys for every 100 girls,[380] which is beyond the normal range of around 105 boys for every 100 girls.[381] The 2010 census found that males accounted for 51.27 percent of the total population.[380] However, China's sex ratio is more balanced than it was in 1953, when males accounted for 51.82 percent of the total population.[380]

Ethnic groupsEdit

Template:Main article

File:China Post logo with (New) Tai Lü script in Mohan, Yunnan.jpg

China officially recognizes 56 distinct ethnic groups, the largest of which are the Han Chinese, who constitute about 91.51% of the total population.[382] The Han Chinese – the world's largest single ethnic group[383] – outnumber other ethnic groups in every provincial-level division except Tibet and Xinjiang.[384] Ethnic minorities account for about 8.49% of the population of China, according to the 2010 census.[382] Compared with the 2000 population census, the Han population increased by 66,537,177 persons, or 5.74%, while the population of the 55 national minorities combined increased by 7,362,627 persons, or 6.92%.[382] The 2010 census recorded a total of 593,832 foreign citizens living in China. The largest such groups were from South Korea (120,750), the United States (71,493) and Japan (66,159).[385]

LanguagesEdit

Template:Main article

File:China linguistic map.jpg

There are as many as 292 living languages in China.[386] The languages most commonly spoken belong to the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family, which contains Mandarin (spoken natively by 70% of the population),[387] and other Chinese varieties: Yue (including Cantonese and Taishanese), Wu (including Shanghainese and Suzhounese), Min (including Fuzhounese, Hokkien and Teochew), Xiang, Gan and Hakka. Languages of the Tibeto-Burman branch, including Tibetan, Qiang, Naxi and Yi, are spoken across the Tibetan and Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau. Other ethnic minority languages in southwest China include Zhuang, Thai, Dong and Sui of the Tai-Kadai family, Miao and Yao of the Hmong–Mien family, and Wa of the Austroasiatic family. Across northeastern and northwestern China, minority ethnic groups speak Altaic languages including Manchu, Mongolian and several Turkic languages: Uyghur, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Salar and Western Yugur. Korean is spoken natively along the border with North Korea. Sarikoli, the language of Tajiks in western Xinjiang, is an Indo-European language. Taiwanese aborigines, including a small population on the mainland, speak Austronesian languages.[388]

Standard Mandarin, a variety of Mandarin based on the Beijing dialect, is the official national language of China and is used as a lingua franca in the country between people of different linguistic backgrounds.[389]

Chinese characters have been used as the written script for the Sinitic languages for thousands of years. They allow speakers of mutually unintelligible Chinese varieties to communicate with each other through writing. In 1956, the government introduced simplified characters, which have supplanted the older traditional characters in mainland China. Chinese characters are romanized using the Pinyin system. Tibetan uses an alphabet based on an Indic script. Uyghur is most commonly written in a Perseo-Arabic script. The Mongolian script used in China and the Manchu script are both derived from the Old Uyghur alphabet. Modern Zhuang uses the Latin alphabet.

UrbanizationEdit

Template:See also

File:China Top 10 Biggest Cities.png

China has urbanized significantly in recent decades. The percent of the country's population living in urban areas increased from 20% in 1980 to over 50% in 2014.[390][391][392] It is estimated that China's urban population will reach one billion by 2030, potentially equivalent to one-eighth of the world population.[390][391] Template:As of, there are more than 262 million migrant workers in China, mostly rural migrants seeking work in cities.[393]

China has over 160 cities with a population of over one million,[394] including the seven megacities (cities with a population of over 10 million) of Chongqing, Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, Tianjin, Shenzhen, and Wuhan.[395][396][397] By 2025, it is estimated that the country will be home to 221 cities with over a million inhabitants.[390] The figures in the table below are from the 2010 census,[398] and are only estimates of the urban populations within administrative city limits; a different ranking exists when considering the total municipal populations (which includes suburban and rural populations). The large "floating populations" of migrant workers make conducting censuses in urban areas difficult;[399] the figures below include only long-term residents. Template:Largest cities of China

EducationEdit

Template:Main article

File:Tsinghua University - Grand auditorium.JPG

Since 1986, compulsory education in China comprises primary and junior secondary school, which together last for nine years.[401] In 2010, about 82.5 percent of students continued their education at a three-year senior secondary school.[402] The Gaokao, China's national university entrance exam, is a prerequisite for entrance into most higher education institutions. In 2010, 27 percent of secondary school graduates are enrolled in higher education.[403] Vocational education is available to students at the secondary and tertiary level.[404]

In February 2006, the government pledged to provide completely free nine-year education, including textbooks and fees.[405] Annual education investment went from less than US$50 billion in 2003 to more than US$250 billion in 2011.[406] However, there remains an inequality in education spending. In 2010, the annual education expenditure per secondary school student in Beijing totalled ¥20,023, while in Guizhou, one of the poorest provinces in China, only totalled ¥3,204.[407] Free compulsory education in China consists of primary school and junior secondary school between the ages of 6 and 15. In 2011, around 81.4% of Chinese have received secondary education.[408] By 2007, there were 396,567 primary schools, 94,116 secondary schools, and 2,236 higher education institutions in China.[409]

Template:As of, 94% of the population over age 15 are literate,[410] compared to only 20% in 1950.[411] In 2009, Chinese students from Shanghai achieved the world's best results in mathematics, science and literacy, as tested by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), a worldwide evaluation of 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance.[412] Despite the high results, Chinese education has also faced both native and international criticism for its emphasis on rote memorization and its gap in quality from rural to urban areas.

HealthEdit

Template:Main article Template:See also

File:China Human Dev SVG.svg

The National Health and Family Planning Commission, together with its counterparts in the local commissions, oversees the health needs of the Chinese population.[413] An emphasis on public health and preventive medicine has characterized Chinese health policy since the early 1950s. At that time, the Communist Party started the Patriotic Health Campaign, which was aimed at improving sanitation and hygiene, as well as treating and preventing several diseases. Diseases such as cholera, typhoid and scarlet fever, which were previously rife in China, were nearly eradicated by the campaign. After Deng Xiaoping began instituting economic reforms in 1978, the health of the Chinese public improved rapidly because of better nutrition, although many of the free public health services provided in the countryside disappeared along with the People's Communes. Healthcare in China became mostly privatized, and experienced a significant rise in quality. In 2009, the government began a 3-year large-scale healthcare provision initiative worth US$124 billion.[414] By 2011, the campaign resulted in 95% of China's population having basic health insurance coverage.[415] In 2011, China was estimated to be the world's third-largest supplier of pharmaceuticals, but its population has suffered from the development and distribution of counterfeit medications.[416]

Template:As of, the average life expectancy at birth in China is 75 years,[417] and the infant mortality rate is 12 per thousand.[418] Both have improved significantly since the 1950s.Template:Efn Rates of stunting, a condition caused by malnutrition, have declined from 33.1% in 1990 to 9.9% in 2010.[419] Despite significant improvements in health and the construction of advanced medical facilities, China has several emerging public health problems, such as respiratory illnesses caused by widespread air pollution,[420] hundreds of millions of cigarette smokers,[421] and an increase in obesity among urban youths.[422][423] China's large population and densely populated cities have led to serious disease outbreaks in recent years, such as the 2003 outbreak of SARS, although this has since been largely contained.[424] In 2010, air pollution caused 1.2 million premature deaths in China.[425]

ReligionEdit

Template:Main article

Freedom of religion is guaranteed by China's constitution, although religious organizations that lack official approval can be subject to state persecution.[212][426] The government of the People's Republic of China is officially atheist. Religious affairs and issues in the country are overseen by the State Administration for Religious Affairs.[427]

Over the millennia, Chinese civilization has been influenced by various religious movements. The "three teachings", including Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism (Chinese Buddhism), historically have a significant role in shaping Chinese culture,[428][429] Chinese folk religion, which contains elements of the three teachings,[430] consists in allegiance to the shen (神), a character that signifies the "energies of generation", who can be deities of the natural environment or ancestral principles of human groups, concepts of civility, culture heroes, many of whom feature in Chinese mythology and history.[431] Among the most popular folk cults are those of Mazu (goddess of the seas),[432][433] Huangdi (one of the two divine patriarchs of the Chinese race),[432][434] Guandi (god of war and business), Caishen (god of prosperity and richness), Pangu and many others. China is home to many of the world's tallest religious statues, including the tallest of all, the Spring Temple Buddha in Henan.

Clear data on religious affiliation in China is difficult to gather due to varying definitions on "religion" and the unorganized nature of Chinese religious traditions. Scholars note that in China there is no clear boundary between religions, especially Buddhism, Taoism and local folk religious practice.[428] A 2015 poll conducted by Gallup International found that 61% of Chinese people self-identified as "convinced atheist".[435] According to one study from 2012, about 90% of the Chinese population are either nonreligious or practice some form of Chinese folk religions, Taoism and Confucianism.[436] Approximately 6% are Buddhists, 2% are Christians, and 1% are Muslims.[436] In addition to Han people's local religious practices, there are also various ethnic minority groups in China who maintain their traditional autochthone religions. Various sects of indigenous origin comprise 2—3% of the population, while Confucianism as a religious self-designation is popular among intellectuals. Significant faiths specifically connected to certain ethnic groups include Tibetan Buddhism and the Islamic religion of the Hui and Uyghur peoples.

Template:Multiple image

CultureEdit

Template:Main article

File:11 Temple of Heaven.jpg

Since ancient times, Chinese culture has been heavily influenced by Confucianism and conservative philosophies. For much of the country's dynastic era, opportunities for social advancement could be provided by high performance in the prestigious imperial examinations, which have their origins in the Han Dynasty.[438] The literary emphasis of the exams affected the general perception of cultural refinement in China, such as the belief that calligraphy, poetry and painting were higher forms of art than dancing or drama. Chinese culture has long emphasized a sense of deep history and a largely inward-looking national perspective.[3] Examinations and a culture of merit remain greatly valued in China today.[439]

The first leaders of the People's Republic of China were born into the traditional imperial order, but were influenced by the May Fourth Movement and reformist ideals. They sought to change some traditional aspects of Chinese culture, such as rural land tenure, sexism, and the Confucian system of education, while preserving others, such as the family structure and culture of obedience to the state. Some observers see the period following the establishment of the PRC in 1949 as a continuation of traditional Chinese dynastic history, while others claim that the Communist Party's rule has damaged the foundations of Chinese culture, especially through political movements such as the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s, where many aspects of traditional culture were destroyed, having been denounced as "regressive and harmful" or "vestiges of feudalism". Many important aspects of traditional Chinese morals and culture, such as Confucianism, art, literature, and performing arts like Peking opera,[440] were altered to conform to government policies and propaganda at the time. Access to foreign media remains heavily restricted.[441]

Today, the Chinese government has accepted numerous elements of traditional Chinese culture as being integral to Chinese society. With the rise of Chinese nationalism and the end of the Cultural Revolution, various forms of traditional Chinese art, literature, music, film, fashion and architecture have seen a vigorous revival,[442][443] and folk and variety art in particular have sparked interest nationally and even worldwide.[444] China is now the third-most-visited country in the world,[445] with 55.7 million inbound international visitors in 2010.[446] It also experiences an enormous volume of domestic tourism; an estimated 740 million Chinese holidaymakers travelled within the country in October 2012 alone.[447]

LiteratureEdit

Template:Main article

File:Pekin przedstawienie tradycjnego teatru chinskiego 7.JPG

Chinese literature is based on the literature of the Zhou dynasty.[448] Concepts covered within the Chinese classic texts present a wide range of thoughts and subjects including calendar, military, astrology, herbology, geography and many others.[449] Some of the most important early texts include the I Ching and the Shujing within the Four Books and Five Classics which served as the Confucian authoritative books for the state-sponsored curriculum in dynastic era.[450] Inherited from the Classic of Poetry, classical Chinese poetry developed to its floruit during the Tang dynasty. Li Bai and Du Fu opened the forking ways for the poetic circles through romanticism and realism respectively.[451] Chinese historiography began with the Shiji, the overall scope of the historiographical tradition in China is termed the Twenty-Four Histories, which set a vast stage for Chinese fictions along with Chinese mythology and folklore.[452] Pushed by a burgeoning citizen class in the Ming dynasty, Chinese classical fiction rose to a boom of the historical, town and gods and demons fictions as represented by the Four Great Classical Novels which include Water Margin, Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Journey to the West and Dream of the Red Chamber.[453] Along with the wuxia fictions of Jin Yong and Liang Yusheng,[454] it remains an enduring source of popular culture in the East Asian cultural sphere.[455]

In the wake of the New Culture Movement after the end of the Qing dynasty, Chinese literature embarked on a new era with written vernacular Chinese for ordinary citizens. Hu Shih and Lu Xun were pioneers in modern literature.[456] Various literary genres, such as misty poetry, scar literature, young adult fiction and the xungen literature, which is influenced by magic realism,[457] emerged following the Cultural Revolution. Mo Yan, a xungen literature author, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2012.[458]

CuisineEdit

Template:Main article

File:Chinese foods from different regional cuisines.jpg

Chinese cuisine is highly diverse, drawing on several millennia of culinary history and geographical variety, in which the most influential are known as the "Eight Major Cuisines", including Sichuan, Cantonese, Jiangsu, Shandong, Fujian, Hunan, Anhui, and Zhejiang cuisines.[460] All of them are featured by the precise skills of shaping, heating, colorway and flavoring.[461] Chinese cuisine is also known for its width of cooking methods and ingredients,[462] as well as food therapy that is emphasized by traditional Chinese medicine.[463] Generally, China's staple food is rice in the south, wheat based breads and noodles in the north. The diet of the common people in pre-modern times was largely grain and simple vegetables, with meat reserved for special occasions. And the bean products, such as tofu and soy milk, remain as a popular source of protein.[464] Pork is now the most popular meat in China, accounting for about three-fourths of the country's total meat consumption.[465] While there is also a Buddhist cuisine and an Islamic cuisine.[466] Southern cuisine, due to the area's proximity to the ocean and milder climate, has a wide variety of seafood and vegetables; it differs in many respects from the wheat-based diets across dry northern China. Numerous offshoots of Chinese food, such as Hong Kong cuisine and American Chinese food, have emerged in the nations that play host to the Chinese diaspora.

SportsEdit

Template:Main article

File:Dragon boat racing.jpg

China has become a prime sports destination worldwide. The country gained the hosting rights for several major global sports tournaments including the 2008 Summer Olympics, the 2015 World Championships in Athletics and the upcoming 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup.

China has one of the oldest sporting cultures in the world. There is evidence that archery (shèjiàn) was practiced during the Western Zhou Dynasty. Swordplay (jiànshù) and cuju, a sport loosely related to association football[467] date back to China's early dynasties as well.[468]

Physical fitness is widely emphasized in Chinese culture, with morning exercises such as qigong and t'ai chi ch'uan widely practiced,[469] and commercial gyms and fitness clubs gaining popularity in the country.[470] Basketball is currently the most popular spectator sport in China.[471] The Chinese Basketball Association and the American National Basketball Association have a huge following among the people, with native or ethnic Chinese players such as Yao Ming and Yi Jianlian held in high esteem.[472] China's professional football league, now known as Chinese Super League, was established in 1994, it is the largest football market in Asia.[473] Other popular sports in the country include martial arts, table tennis, badminton, swimming and snooker. Board games such as go (known as wéiqí in Chinese), xiangqi, mahjong, and more recently chess, are also played at a professional level.[474] In addition, China is home to a huge number of cyclists, with an estimated 470 million bicycles Template:As of.[351] Many more traditional sports, such as dragon boat racing, Mongolian-style wrestling and horse racing are also popular.[475]

China has participated in the Olympic Games since 1932, although it has only participated as the PRC since 1952. China hosted the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, where its athletes received 51 gold medals – the highest number of gold medals of any participating nation that year.[476] China also won the most medals of any nation at the 2012 Summer Paralympics, with 231 overall, including 95 gold medals.[477][478] In 2011, Shenzhen in Guangdong, China hosted the 2011 Summer Universiade. China hosted the 2013 East Asian Games in Tianjin and the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics in Nanjing.

See alsoEdit

Template:Portal

FootnotesEdit

Template:Notelist

ReferencesEdit

  1. Template:Cite web
  2. Template:Cite web
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Template:Cite news
  4. Template:Cite web
  5. 5.0 5.1 Template:Cite news
  6. 6.0 6.1 Template:Cite web
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Template:Cite web
  8. "China" in the Oxford English Dictionary (1989). ISBN 0-19-957315-8.
  9. "-ese, suffix", and "Chinese, adj. and n.", in the Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  10. "China". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (2000). Boston and New York: Houghton-Mifflin.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Wade, Geoff. "The Polity of Yelang and the Origin of the Name 'China'". Sino-Platonic Papers, No. 188, May 2009, p. 20.
  12. Martino, Martin, Novus Atlas Sinensis, Vienna 1655, Preface, p. 2.
  13. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named bs
  14. Template:Cite book
  15. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named zg
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 Template:Citation
  17. Template:Cite book
  18. Template:Cite book
  19. Template:Citation
  20. Template:Cite book
  21. "Early Homo erectus Tools in China". Archaeological Institute of America. 2000. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
  22. Template:Cite web
  23. Template:Cite journal
  24. Template:Cite web
  25. 25.0 25.1 Template:Cite news
  26. Qiu Xigui (2000). Chinese Writing. English translation of 文字學概論 by Gilbert L. Mattos and Jerry Norman. Early China Special Monograph Series No. 4. Berkeley: The Society for the Study of Early China and the Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley. ISBN 978-1-55729-071-7.
  27. Template:Cite book
  28. "Bronze Age China". National Gallery of Art. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
  29. Template:Cite book
  30. Template:Cite book
  31. Template:Cite book
  32. William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol. 17, No. 3, Early Writing Systems. (Feb. 1986), pp. 420–436 (436).
  33. David N. Keightley, "Art, Ancestors, and the Origins of Writing in China", Representations, No. 56, Special Issue: The New Erudition. (Autumn, 1996), pp.68–95 (68).
  34. Template:Cite encyclopedia
  35. Template:Cite book
  36. Sima Qian, Translated by Burton Watson. Records of the Grand Historian: Han Dynasty I, p. 11-12. ISBN 0-231-08165-0.
  37. 37.0 37.1 Bodde, Derk. (1986). "The State and Empire of Ch'in", in The Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220. Edited by Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24327-0.
  38. 38.0 38.1 Template:Cite book
  39. Template:Cite web
  40. Template:Cite book
  41. Whiting, Marvin C. (2002). Imperial Chinese Military History. iUniverse. p. 214
  42. Ki-Baik Lee (1984). A new history of Korea. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-61576-2. p.47.
  43. David Andrew Graff (2002). Medieval Chinese warfare, 300–900. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-23955-9. p.13.
  44. Adshead, S. A. M. (2004). T'ang China: The Rise of the East in World History. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 54
  45. Template:Citation
  46. City University of HK Press (2007). China: Five Thousand Years of History and Civilization. ISBN 962-937-140-5. p.71
  47. Paludan, Ann (1998). Chronicle of the Chinese Emperors. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05090-2. p. 136.
  48. Template:Cite book
  49. Template:Cite web
  50. "从汝窑、修内司窑和郊坛窑的技术传承看宋代瓷业的发展". wanfangdata.com.cn. 15 February 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
  51. Template:Cite book
  52. Ping-ti Ho. "An Estimate of the Total Population of Sung-Chin China", in Études Song, Series 1, No 1, (1970). pp. 33–53.
  53. Template:Cite news
  54. Template:Cite web
  55. "论明末士人阶层与资本主义萌芽的关系". docin.com. 8 April 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2015.
  56. John M. Roberts (1997). A Short History of the World. Oxford University Press. p. 272. ISBN 0-19-511504-X.
  57. The Cambridge History of China: Volume 10, Part 1, by John K. Fairbank, p37
  58. Template:Cite book
  59. Template:Cite book
  60. Ainslie Thomas Embree, Carol Gluck (1997). Asia in Western and World History: A Guide for Teaching. M.E. Sharpe. p.597. ISBN 1-56324-265-6.
  61. Template:Cite web
  62. "Dimensions of need – People and populations at risk". 1995. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Retrieved 3 July 2013.
  63. Eileen Tamura (1997). China: Understanding Its Past. Volume 1. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1923-3. p.146.
  64. Stephen Haw, (2006). Beijing: A Concise History. Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-415-39906-8. p.143.
  65. Bruce Elleman (2001). Modern Chinese Warfare. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-21474-2. p.149.
  66. Graham Hutchings (2003). Modern China: A Guide to a Century of Change. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01240-2. p.459.
  67. Peter Zarrow (2005). China in War and Revolution, 1895–1949. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-36447-7. p.230.
  68. M. Leutner (2002). The Chinese Revolution in the 1920s: Between Triumph and Disaster. Routledge. ISBN 0-7007-1690-4. p.129.
  69. Hung-Mao Tien (1972). Government and Politics in Kuomintang China, 1927–1937 (Volume 53). Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-0812-6. pp. 60–72.
  70. Suisheng Zhao (2000). China and Democracy: Reconsidering the Prospects for a Democratic China. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92694-7. p.43.
  71. David Ernest Apter, Tony Saich (1994). Revolutionary Discourse in Mao's Republic. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-76780-2. p.198.
  72. "Nuclear Power: The End of the War Against Japan". BBC — History. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  73. "Judgement: International Military Tribunal for the Far East". Chapter VIII: Conventional War Crimes (Atrocities). November 1948. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  74. Template:Cite book
  75. Template:Cite book
  76. Template:Cite web
  77. Hoopes, Townsend, and Douglas Brinkley. FDR and the Creation of the U.N. (Yale University Press, 1997)
  78. Template:Cite book
  79. Template:Cite encyclopedia
  80. Template:Cite web
  81. Template:Cite news
  82. Template:Cite web
  83. Template:Cite book
  84. Busky, Donald F. (2002). Communism in History and Theory. Greenwood Publishing Group. p.11.
  85. Template:Cite web
  86. Template:Cite book
  87. Template:Cite news
  88. Michael Y.M. Kao. "Taiwan's and Beijing's Campaigns for Unification" in Harvey Feldman and Michael Y. M. Kao (eds., 1988): Taiwan in a Time of Transition. New York: Paragon House. p.188.
  89. Hart-Landsberg, Martin; and Burkett, Paul. "China and Socialism: Market Reforms and Class Struggle". Monthly Review. Retrieved 30 October 2008.
  90. Template:Cite web
  91. Nation bucks trend of global poverty. China Daily. 11 July 2003. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  92. China's Average Economic Growth in 90s Ranked 1st in World. People's Daily. 1 March 2000. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  93. Template:Cite news
  94. China worried over pace of growth. BBC. Retrieved 16 April 2006.
  95. China: Migrants, Students, Taiwan. Migration News. January 2006.
  96. In Face of Rural Unrest, China Rolls Out Reforms. Washington Post. 28 January 2006.
  97. Template:Cite web
  98. Template:Cite news
  99. 99.0 99.1 Template:Cite news
  100. Template:Cite web
  101. Template:Cite news
  102. Template:Cite news
  103. Template:Cite web
  104. Template:Cite news
  105. Template:Cite news
  106. Template:Cite news
  107. 107.0 107.1 Template:Cite web
  108. Template:Cite book
  109. Template:Cite web
  110. Template:Cite web
  111. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named UN_Stat
  112. 112.0 112.1 Template:Cite web
  113. Template:Cite web
  114. Template:Cite news
  115. Template:Cite web
  116. Template:Cite book
  117. Template:Cite news
  118. "Beijing hit by eighth sandstorm". BBC news. Retrieved 17 April 2006.
  119. Template:Cite journal
  120. Template:Cite news
  121. Template:Cite web
  122. Countries with the Highest Biological Diversity. Mongabay.com. 2004 data. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
  123. Template:Cite web
  124. Template:Cite web
  125. IUCN Initiatives – Mammals – Analysis of Data – Geographic Patterns 2012. IUCN. Retrieved 24 April 2013. Data does not include species in Taiwan.
  126. Countries with the most bird species. Mongabay.com. 2004 data. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
  127. Countries with the most reptile species. Mongabay.com. 2004 data. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
  128. IUCN Initiatives – Amphibians – Analysis of Data – Geographic Patterns 2012. IUCN. Retrieved 24 April 2013. Data does not include species in Taiwan.
  129. Top 20 countries with most endangered species IUCN Red List. 5 March 2010. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
  130. Template:Cite web
  131. Countries with the most vascular plant species. Mongabay.com. 2004 data. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
  132. 132.0 132.1 132.2 Template:Cite book
  133. Template:Cite book
  134. Template:Cite journal
  135. Template:Cite book
  136. Template:Cite news
  137. Template:Cite news
  138. Template:Cite news
  139. Template:Cite news
  140. "China's decade plan for water". The Earth Institute. Columbia University. 24 October 2011. Retrieved 23 November 2011.
  141. Template:Cite web
  142. 142.0 142.1 Template:Cite news
  143. Template:Cite news
  144. Template:Cite news
  145. Template:Cite news
  146. Template:Cite news
  147. Template:Cite news
  148. "China's big push for renewable energy". Scientific American. 4 August 2008. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  149. "China tops the world in clean energy production." Ecosensorium. 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  150. "Splashing out: China to spend 4 trillion yuan on water projects". Want China Times. 11 July 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
  151. Template:Cite web
  152. Chapter 1, Articles !, 3 Constitution of the People's Republic of China
  153. Template:Cite journal
  154. 154.0 154.1 Template:Cite web
  155. Template:Cite news
  156. Template:Cite web
  157. Article 97 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China
  158. Template:Cite web
  159. Template:Cite web
  160. Constitution of the People's Republic of China. (1982)
  161. Template:Cite news
  162. Template:Cite news
  163. Template:Cite web
  164. Lohmar, Bryan; and Somwaru, Agapi; Does China's Land-Tenure System Discourage Structural Adjustment?. 1 May 2006. USDA Economic Research Service. Retrieved 3 May 2006.
  165. "China sounds alarm over fast-growing gap between rich and poor". Associated Press via Highbeam (subscription required to see full article). 11 May 2002. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  166. Hasmath, R. (2012) "Red China's Iron Grip on Power: Communist Party Continues Repression", The Washington Times, 12 November, p. B4.
  167. Template:Cite news
  168. Gwillim Law (2 April 2005). Provinces of China. Retrieved 15 April 2006.
  169. Chang, Eddy (22 August 2004). Perseverance will pay off at the UN, The Taipei Times.
  170. Template:Cite news
  171. "BRICS summit ends in China". BBC. 14 April 2011. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
  172. Template:Cite news
  173. Template:Cite news
  174. Template:Cite book
  175. Template:Cite news
  176. Template:Cite web
  177. Template:Cite news
  178. Template:Cite news
  179. Template:Cite news
  180. Dillon, Dana; and Tkacik, John, Jr.; China's Quest for Asia. Policy Review. December 2005 and January 2006. Issue No. 134. Retrieved 22 April 2006.
  181. Template:Cite news
  182. "US trade gap widens on increased Chinese imports". BBC News. 14 October 2010.
  183. "Chinese President Hu Jintao resists Obama calls on yuan". BBC News. 13 April 2010.
  184. 184.0 184.1 Template:Cite news
  185. Template:Cite news
  186. McLaughlin, Abraham; "A rising China counters US clout in Africa". Christian Science Monitor. 30 March 2005.
  187. Lyman, Princeton N.; "China's Rising Role in Africa". 21 July 2005. Council of Foreign Relations. Retrieved 26 June 2007.
  188. Politzer, Malia. "China and Africa: Stronger Economic Ties Mean More Migration". Migration Information Source. August 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
  189. Template:Cite web
  190. "Is Brazil a derivative of China?". Forbes.com. 24 August 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  191. "China, Argentina agree to further strategic ties". Xinhua.com. 9 September 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  192. Template:Cite web
  193. "China denies preparing war over South China Sea shoal". BBC. 12 May 2012.
  194. Template:Cite news
  195. Template:Cite news
  196. Template:Cite news
  197. Template:Cite web
  198. Template:Cite web
  199. Grinin, Leonid. "Chinese Joker in the World Pack". Journal of Globalization Studies. Volume 2, Number 2. November 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
  200. Template:Cite book
  201. Template:Cite web
  202. "China Requires Internet Users to Register Names". AP via My Way News. 28 December 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
  203. Template:Cite news
  204. Template:Cite journal
  205. Template:Cite web
  206. Template:Cite web
  207. 207.0 207.1 Template:Cite news
  208. 208.0 208.1 Template:Cite news
  209. Template:Cite news
  210. Template:Cite news
  211. Template:Cite news
  212. 212.0 212.1 "China bans religious activities in Xinjiang". Financial Times. 2 August 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
  213. Template:Cite news
  214. Template:Cite news
  215. Seth Faison, "In Beijing: A Roar of Silent Protestors", New York Times, 27 April 1999
  216. 216.0 216.1 Template:Cite book
  217. Template:Cite book
  218. Template:Cite news
  219. Template:Cite news
  220. 220.0 220.1 "China's Progress in Human Rights in 2004". Gov.cn. July 2005. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  221. "China seeks to improve workplace safety". USA Today. 30 January 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
  222. "China's reform and opening-up promotes human rights, says premier". Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the United States. 11 December 2003. Retrieved 28 April 2006.
  223. "Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao talks reform, but most countrymen never get to hear what he says". Washington Post. 13 October 2010. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  224. Template:Cite web
  225. Template:Cite book
  226. Template:Cite news
  227. Annual Report To Congress – Military Power of the People's Republic of China 2009 (PDF). Defenselink.mil. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
  228. Nolt, James H. Analysis: The China-Taiwan military balance. Asia Times. 1999. Retrieved 15 April 2006.
  229. Template:Cite web
  230. 230.0 230.1 Template:Cite web
  231. Template:Cite web
  232. Template:Cite news
  233. "China unveils fleet of submarines". The Guardian. 22 April 2009. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
  234. Template:Cite news
  235. Template:Cite web
  236. Template:Cite web
  237. "Early Eclipse: F-35 JSF Prospects in the Age of Chinese Stealth." China-Defense. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
  238. "Chengdu J-20 – China's 5th Generation Fighter." Defense-Update.com. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
  239. Washington Journal. (12 August 2015) "U.S. Military Approach toward China". Mark Perry, Politico writer, interview by Steve Scanlan, host. C-Span. Retrieved 12 August 2015. C-Span website
  240. Al Jazeera America Wire Service. (11 May 2015) Japan moves to boost role of military. Retrieved 12 August 2015. Al Jazerra America website
  241. Ground Forces. SinoDefence.com. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  242. Surface-to-air Missile System. SinoDefence.com. 2006. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  243. Template:Cite book
  244. "China plays down fears after satellite shot down". Agence France-Presse via ChannelNewsAsia. 20 January 2007. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
  245. "Chinese Navy Tests Land Attack Cruise Missiles: Implications for Asia-Pacific". New Pacific Institute. 25 July 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
  246. "China expanding its nuclear stockpile". The Washington Times. 25 August 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
  247. Template:Cite web
  248. Template:Cite web
  249. "Shanghai's GDP grows 8.2% in 2011". China Daily. 20 January 2012. Retrieved 15 April 2012.
  250. Template:Cite web
  251. http://piketty.pse.ens.fr/files/Maddison98.pdf Angus Maddison. Chinese Economic Performance in the Long Run. Development Centre Studies. Accessed 2007. p.29
  252. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named China_GDP
  253. Template:Cite web
  254. Template:Cite web
  255. "Communism Is Dead, But State Capitalism Thrives". Vahan Janjigian. Forbes. 22 March 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
  256. "The Winners And Losers In Chinese Capitalism". Gady Epstein. Forbes. 31 August 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
  257. John Lee. "Putting Democracy in China on Hold". The Center for Independent Studies. 26 July 2008. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  258. Template:Cite web
  259. Template:Cite web
  260. Template:Cite web
  261. Template:Cite web
  262. Template:Cite news
  263. Template:Cite news
  264. Template:Cite web
  265. Template:Cite web
  266. Template:Cite news
  267. Template:Cite web
  268. Template:Cite news
  269. Template:Cite news
  270. Template:Cite news
  271. Template:Cite news
  272. Template:Cite web
  273. Template:Cite news
  274. Template:Cite web
  275. 275.0 275.1 Template:Cite web
  276. Template:Cite web
  277. Template:Cite news
  278. Template:Cite news
  279. "Washington learns to treat China with care". CNNMoney.com. 29 July 2009.
  280. Template:Cite news
  281. Template:Cite news
  282. Template:Cite news
  283. Intellectual Property Rights. Asia Business Council. September 2005. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
  284. Template:Cite web
  285. Template:Cite web
  286. Template:Cite web
  287. The Global Competitiveness Report 2009–2010 World Economic Forum. Retrieved on 24 September 2009.
  288. "2011 Index of Economic Freedom". The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
  289. Template:Cite web
  290. Template:Cite web
  291. Template:Cite news
  292. Template:Cite web
  293. "China's billionaires double in number". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
  294. Template:Cite web
  295. Template:Cite web
  296. "Super Rich have Craze for luxury goods". China Daily. 3 March 2010. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
  297. "China inflation exceeding 6%". BusinessWeek. 14 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  298. "Steep rise in Chinese food prices". BBC. 16 April 2008. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  299. "China's GDP grows 9.1% in third quarter". Financial Times. 18 October 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  300. Template:Cite news
  301. Template:Cite news
  302. Template:Cite news
  303. The Controversial Chinese Economist Uncovering Tough Truths, Bloomberg Businessweek, 2017-03-24
  304. Template:Cite journal
  305. Template:Cite web
  306. "RMB Settlement", Kasikorn Research Center, Bangkok, 8 February 2011
  307. Template:Cite news
  308. Template:Cite web
  309. Template:Cite web
  310. Template:Cite web
  311. Template:Cite web
  312. Template:Cite web
  313. Template:Cite web
  314. Template:Cite web
  315. Struik, Dirk J. (1987). A Concise History of Mathematics. New York: Dover Publications. p.32–33. "In these matrices we find negative numbers, which appear here for the first time in history."
  316. Template:Cite book
  317. Template:Cite journal
  318. Template:Cite book
  319. Template:Cite book
  320. Template:Cite book
  321. 321.0 321.1 Template:Cite web
  322. 322.0 322.1 Template:Cite web
  323. Template:Cite journal
  324. "Desperately seeking math and science majors" CNN. 29 July 2009. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
  325. "China publishes the second most scientific papers in international journals in 2010: report". Xinhua. 2 December 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
  326. Template:Cite news
  327. Template:Cite web
  328. Template:Cite news
  329. Template:Cite news
  330. Template:Cite news
  331. Template:Cite web
  332. Template:Cite news
  333. David Eimer, "China's huge leap forward into space threatens US ascendancy over heavens". Daily Telegraph. 5 November 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
  334. Template:Cite web
  335. Template:Cite news
  336. Template:Cite web
  337. Template:Cite news
  338. Template:Cite news
  339. 339.0 339.1 Template:Cite news
  340. Template:Cite web
  341. "The bad news is that the digital access divide is here to stay: Domestically installed bandwidths among 172 countries for 1986–2014", Martin Hilbert (2016), Telecommunications Policy; free access to the article http://escholarship.org/uc/item/2jp4w5rq
  342. Template:Cite web
  343. Template:Cite news
  344. Template:Cite news
  345. "The final frontier". China Daily. 27 April 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
  346. Template:Cite news
  347. Template:Cite web
  348. Template:Cite news
  349. Template:Cite web
  350. Template:Cite news
  351. 351.0 351.1 Template:Cite news
  352. "Chinese Railways Carry Record Passengers, Freight" Xinhua 21 June 2007
  353. 353.0 353.1 Template:Cite news
  354. 354.0 354.1 (Chinese) "2013年铁道统计公报"
  355. Template:Cite news
  356. (Chinese) "中国高铁总里程达11028公里占世界一半" 新华网 5 March 2014
  357. Template:Cite web
  358. Template:Cite news
  359. "China boasts biggest high-speed rail network". Agence France-Presse via The Raw Story. 24 July 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  360. "Top ten fastest trains in the world" railway-technology.com 29 August 2013
  361. Template:Cite news
  362. Template:Cite news
  363. 363.0 363.1 Template:Cite news
  364. Template:Cite news
  365. "Top 50 World Container Ports" World Shipping Council Accessed 2 June 2014
  366. Template:Cite web
  367. Template:Cite web
  368. Global Water Intelligence:"New directions in Chinese wastewater", October 2010, p. 22, quoting the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development
  369. Template:Cite news
  370. Template:Cite web
  371. Template:Cite web
  372. Template:Cite web
  373. Template:Cite web
  374. Template:Cite journal
  375. Template:Cite news
  376. Template:Cite web
  377. Template:Cite news
  378. Template:Cite news
  379. Template:Cite news
  380. 380.0 380.1 380.2 "Chinese mainland gender ratios most balanced since 1950s: census data". Xinhua. 28 April 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  381. Template:Cite web
  382. 382.0 382.1 382.2 Template:Cite web
  383. Template:Cite news
  384. Template:Cite book
  385. "Major Figures on Residents from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan and Foreigners Covered by 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 29 April 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  386. Languages of China – from Lewis, M. Paul (ed.), 2009. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International.
  387. Template:Cite book
  388. "Languages". 2005. Gov.cn. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  389. Template:Cite book
  390. 390.0 390.1 390.2 Template:Cite web
  391. 391.0 391.1 Template:Cite news
  392. Template:Cite web
  393. Template:Cite news
  394. Template:Cite news
  395. Template:Cite news
  396. Template:Cite web
  397. Template:Cite news
  398. Template:Cite web
  399. Francesco Sisci. "China's floating population a headache for census". The Straits Times. 22 September 2000.
  400. Template:Cite web
  401. Template:Cite web
  402. Template:Cite news
  403. Template:Cite news
  404. Template:Cite web
  405. "China pledges free 9-year education in rural west". China Economic Net. 21 February 2006. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
  406. Template:Cite news
  407. Template:Cite news
  408. Template:Cite web
  409. Template:Cite news
  410. Template:Cite web
  411. Plafker, Ted. "China's Long—but Uneven—March to Literacy". International Herald Tribune. 12 February 2001. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  412. "China Beats Out Finland for Top Marks in Education". TIME. 2009. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
  413. Template:Cite web
  414. Template:Cite news
  415. Template:Cite news
  416. Template:Cite news
  417. Template:Cite web
  418. Template:Cite web
  419. Template:Cite journal
  420. Template:Cite web
  421. "China's Tobacco Industry Wields Huge Power" article by Didi Kirsten Tatlow in The New York Times 10 June 2010
  422. "Serving the people?". 1999. Bruce Kennedy. CNN. Retrieved 17 April 2006.
  423. "Obesity Sickening China's Young Hearts". 4 August 2000. People's Daily. Retrieved 17 April 2006.
  424. "China's latest SARS outbreak has been contained, but biosafety concerns remain". 18 May 2004. World Health Organization. Retrieved 17 April 2006.
  425. Template:Cite news
  426. Constitution of the People's Republic of China. Chapter 2, Article 36.
  427. "国家宗教事务局". sara.gov.cn. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
  428. 428.0 428.1 Xinzhong Yao. Chinese Religion: A Contextual Approach. Bloomsbury Academic, 2011. pp. 9–11. ISBN 1847064760
  429. Template:Cite book
  430. Tam Wai Lun, "Local Religion in Contemporary China", in Template:Cite book p. 73
  431. Steven F. Teiser. What is Popular Religion?. Part of: Living in the Chinese Cosmos, Asia for Educators, Columbia University. Extracts from: Stephen F. Teiser. The Spirits of Chinese Religion. In: Religions of China in Practice. Princeton University Press, 1996.
  432. 432.0 432.1 André Laliberté. Religion and the State in China: The Limits of Institutionalization. On: Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, 40, 2, 3–15. 2011. Template:ISSN (online), Template:ISSN (print). p. 7, quote: «[...] while provincial leaders in Fujian nod to Taoism with their sponsorship of the Mazu Pilgrimage in Southern China, the leaders of Shanxi have gone further with their promotion of worship of the Yellow Emperor (黄帝, Huangdi).»
  433. Religions & Christianity in Today's China (China Zentrum). Vol. IV, 2014, No. 1. Template:ISSN. pp. 22–23.
  434. Barry Sautman. Myths of Descent, Racial Nationalism and Ethnic Minorities in the People's Republic of China. In: Frank Dikötter. The Construction of Racial Identities in China and Japan: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. Honolulu, University of Hawai'i Press, 1997, pp. 75–95. ISBN 9622094430. pp. 80–81
  435. Template:Cite web
  436. 436.0 436.1 Chinese Family Panel Studies's survey of 2012. Published in The World Religious Cultures issue 2014: 卢云峰:当代中国宗教状况报告——基于CFPS(2012)调查数据 Template:Webarchive. p. 13, reporting the results of the Renmin University's Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) for the years 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2011, and their average.
  437. Template:Cite web
  438. Template:Cite book
  439. Template:Cite journal
  440. Template:Cite web
  441. Template:Cite web
  442. Template:Cite web
  443. Template:Cite web
  444. Template:Cite web
  445. Template:Cite news
  446. Template:Cite web
  447. Template:Cite news
  448. "中国文学史概述". jstvu.edu.cn. Retrieved 18 July 2015.
  449. Template:Cite web
  450. Template:Cite web
  451. "李白杜甫优劣论". 360doc.com. 18 April 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  452. "史传文学与中国古代小说". 明清小说研究. April 1997. Retrieved 18 July 2015.
  453. "第一章 中国古典小说的发展和明清小说的繁荣". nbtvu.net.cn. Retrieved 18 July 2015.
  454. "金庸作品从流行穿越至经典". 包头日报. 12 March 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2015.
  455. "四大名著在日、韩的传播与跨文化重构". 东北师大学报:哲学社会科学版. June 2010. Retrieved 18 July 2015.
  456. "新文化运动中的胡适与鲁迅". 中共杭州市委党校学报. April 2000. Retrieved 18 July 2015.
  457. "魔幻现实主义文学与"寻根"小说". 文学评论. February 2006. Retrieved 18 July 2015.
  458. "莫言:寻根文学作家". 东江时报. 12 October 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2015.
  459. Template:Cite web
  460. Template:Cite web
  461. Template:Cite web
  462. Template:Cite web
  463. Template:Cite web
  464. "中国居民豆类及豆制品的消费现状". 中国食物与营养. January 2008. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
  465. Template:Cite news
  466. "清真菜对北京菜影响". yqx.cc. 8 January 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
  467. Template:Cite book
  468. Template:Cite web
  469. Template:Cite journal
  470. Template:Cite web
  471. "2014年6岁至69岁人群体育健身活动和体质状况抽测结果发布". 温州日报. 7 August 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
  472. Template:Cite news
  473. "足球不给劲观众却不少 中超球市世界第9亚洲第1". 搜狐体育. 14 July 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
  474. "Chinese players dominate at Malaysia open chess championship". TheStar.com. 2 September 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  475. Qinfa, Ye. "Sports History of China". About.com. Retrieved 21 April 2006.
  476. Template:Cite news
  477. Template:Cite web
  478. Template:Cite news

Further readingEdit

Template:Refbegin

Template:Refend

External linksEdit

Template:Z148 Template:Sister project links

Government
General information
Studies
Travel
Maps

Template:Geographic location Template:Navboxes

Ad blocker interference detected!


Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.